群体

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擁有共同利益英语Community of interest者一同聚集在英國巨石陣

群體英语Community)也被稱為社群或者是共同體,是指因為共享共同價值觀而聚集在一起的社會單位英语Level of analysis。雖然絕大部分群體是由同類物種面對面後才能夠組成較小的團體,但是也有針對民族國際社會虛擬社群等較大或者由多個共同組成之群體進行之研究。其中群體傳統定義是一群彼此有互動且居住在共同區域的人,而今常用來指具有共同價值觀或者因有共同地域關係而產生團體凝聚力英语Group cohesiveness的一群人。

「群體」一詞英語「Community」源自於古法語中指稱夥伴關係或者有組織社會的「Comunete」,而後者更是從拉丁語中專指共同持有東西的詞彙「Communitas英语Communitas」延伸而來[1]。在社會學中對於群體的內涵曾有很大的爭議,社會學家也尚未對群體的定義達成共識,其中在1950年中期關於群體就有49種不同的定義[2]。部分群體可以提出或者行使政治社會權利,其中又有些群體是建立在民主基礎上的,但並非全數群體都是施行民主制度。其中一個能寬泛包括所有不同形式群體的定義為:

一群客觀上相互聯繫的團體或網絡能夠彼此產生相對持久的社會關係,除了超越眼前的家庭關係之外,且彼此能夠定義出關聯作為他們社會身份和社會實踐的重要事項。[3][4]

一般而言群體會是比還要大的社會單位,而當一群人為了達到目標或者解決問題、共同工作的計畫也能夠促使人們組成群體。群體這個詞也可以指一個民族或者全球性的社群,另外也有如合作社般是建立在經濟基礎上的群體。群體彼此可能同時面對或者共有目的信念資源偏好需求英语Needs assessment風險等條件,而這也將影響參與者的身分英语Identity (social science)和凝聚力的強弱。在網際網路出現後群體的定義便比較不受到地域性的限制,因為即便在不同地區、人們仍然可以在同一個虛擬社群內交換訊息或者是分享共同的興趣。而在過去要組織如社會、學術團體等非實體社群時,往往會受到通訊和交通技術的限制而較難發展。

觀點[编辑]

社會學[编辑]

宗教信仰[编辑]

心理學[编辑]

人類學[编辑]

考古學[编辑]

商業傳播[编辑]

生態學[编辑]

跨學科[编辑]

發展[编辑]

發展研究[编辑]

建構和組織[编辑]

群體服務[编辑]

類型[编辑]

相關分類[编辑]

依照地點[编辑]

依照身分[编辑]

相互重疊[编辑]

參見[编辑]

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ "community" Oxford Dictionaries. May 2014. Oxford Dictionaries
  2. ^ Hillery, George A., Jr., "Definitions of Community: Areas of Agreement," Rural Sociology, 20 (4), 1955, p. 111.
  3. ^ James, Paul; Nadarajah, Yaso; Haive, Karen; Stead, Victoria. pdf download Sustainable Communities, Sustainable Development: Other Paths for Papua New Guinea. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. 2012年: 14. 
  4. ^ James, Paul. Globalism, Nationalism, Tribalism: Bringing Theory Back In —Volume 2 of Towards a Theory of Abstract Community. London: Sage Publications. 2006年. 

參考文獻[编辑]

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  • Beck, U. 1992. Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity. London: Sage
— 2000. What is globalization? Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Canuto, Marcello A. and Jason Yaeger, eds. (2000) The Archaeology of Communities. Routledge, New York.
  • Chavis, D.M., Hogge, J.H., McMillan, D.W., & Wandersman, A. 1986. "Sense of community through Brunswick's lens: A first look." Journal of Community Psychology, 14(1), 24-40.
  • Chipuer, H. M., & Pretty, G. M. H. (1999). A review of the Sense of Community Index: Current uses, factor structure, reliability, and further development. Journal of Community Psychology, 27(6), 643-658.
  • Christensen, K., et al. (2003). Encyclopedia of Community. 4 volumes. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Cohen, A. P. 1985. The Symbolic Construction of Community. Routledge: New York.
  • Durkheim, Émile. 1950 [1895] The Rules of Sociological Method. Translated by S. A. Solovay and J. H. Mueller. New York: The Free Press.
  • Cox, F., J. Erlich, J. Rothman, and J. Tropman. 1970. Strategies of Community Organization: A Book of Readings. Itasca, IL: F. E. Peacock Publishers.
  • Effland, R. 1998. The Cultural Evolution of Civilizations Mesa Community College.
  • Giddens, A. 1999. "Risk and Responsibility" Modern Law Review 62(1): 1-10.
  • James, Paul. Nation Formation: Towards a Theory of Abstract Community. London: Sage Publications. 1996年. 
  • James, Paul. Globalism, Nationalism, Tribalism: Bringing Theory Back In —Volume 2 of Towards a Theory of Abstract Community. London: Sage Publications. 2006年. 
  • James, Paul; Nadarajah, Yaso; Haive, Karen; Stead, Victoria. pdf download Sustainable Communities, Sustainable Development: Other Paths for Papua New Guinea. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. 2012年. 
  • Lenski, G. 1974. Human Societies: An Introduction to Macrosociology. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
  • Long, D.A., & Perkins, D.D. (2003). Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Sense of Community Index and Development of a Brief SCI. Journal of Community Psychology, 31, 279-296.
  • McMillan, D.W., & Chavis, D.M. 1986. "Sense of community: A definition and theory." American Journal of Community Psychology, 14(1), 6-23.
  • Nancy, Jean-Luc. La Communauté désœuvrée - philosophical questioning of the concept of community and the possibility of encountering a non-subjective concept of it
  • Muegge, Steven. Platforms, communities and business ecosystems: Lessons learned about entrepreneurship in an interconnected world. Technology Innovation Management Review. 2013, (February): 5–15. 
  • Newman, D. 2005. Sociology: Exploring the Architecture of Everyday Life, Chapter 5. "Building Identity: Socialization" Pine Forge Press. Retrieved: 2006-08-05.
  • Peck, M.S. 1987. The Different Drum: Community-Making and Peace. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-84858-9
  • Perkins, D.D., Florin, P., Rich, R.C., Wandersman, A. & Chavis, D.M. (1990). Participation and the social and physical environment of residential blocks: Crime and community context. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18, 83-115.
  • Putnam, R. D. 2000. Bowling Alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon & Schuster
  • Sarason, S.B. 1974. The psychological sense of community: Prospects for a community psychology. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
— 1986. "Commentary: The emergence of a conceptual center." Journal of Community Psychology, 14, 405-407.
  • Smith, M. K. 2001. Community. Encyclopedia of informal education. Last updated: January 28, 2005. Retrieved: 2006-07-15.
  • Tönnies, F. 1887. Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft, Leipzig: Fues's Verlag, 2nd ed. 1912, 8th edition, Leipzig: Buske, 1935; translated in 1957 as Community and Society. ISBN 0-88738-750-0