聲調

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高调
◌̋ ˥

 
中高调
◌́ ˦

 
中调
◌̄ ˧

 
中低调
◌̀ ˨

 
低调
◌̏ ˩

 
降调
◌̂ ˥˩

 
高降调
◌᷇ ˥˧

 
低降调
◌᷆ ˧˩

 
升调
◌̌ ˨˦

 
高升调
◌᷄ ˧˥

 
低升调
◌᷅ ˩˧

 
降升调
◌᷉ ˦˨˧

 
升降调
◌᷈ ˧˦˨

 

聲調英语Tone)的完整意義是指音节在發音過程中的高低抑揚性(音調,或稱音高)及頓挫性(韻尾或閉塞音)。声调是依附在音节上的超音段成分。音調高低可以由阿拉伯數字的調值表示,模仿音阶1-5。調值55表示音節的調高相當於5(so),時長兩拍。要準確地確定一個聲調的調值,需要借助靈敏的電子儀器來記錄和分析。聲調不同會導致相同輔音和元音的音節和詞語含義不同,此即所謂的變調時所造成之語意歧異性。

現代標準漢語不具備入聲韻尾,不具頓挫性,其聲調僅僅指音調的抑揚升降性。現代標準漢語包含四個聲調,即陰平、陽平、上聲去聲輕聲一般不當作是聲調。

粵語閩南語客家語越南語吴语晋语等帶入聲韻尾,其聲調含義包括抑揚性和頓挫性。調值相同的兩個音節是否帶入聲韻尾會導致其頓挫性不同而決定其是否爲兩個不同的聲調,最典型的例子粵語,是“九聲六調”的粵語中:有九個不同的聲調:陰平、陽平、陰上、陽上、陰去、陽去、陰入、中入、陽入,但只有六個不同的調值。

聲調語言[编辑]

具備聲調系統的語言稱為聲調語言漢藏語系的絕大多數語言、部份印歐語系語言,還有很多其他語系的語言都是聲調語言。

參見[编辑]

參考文獻[编辑]

  • Bao, Zhiming. (1999). The structure of tone. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511880-4.
  • Chen, Matthew Y. 2000. Tone Sandhi: patterns across Chinese dialects. Cambridge, England: CUP ISBN 0-521-65272-3
  • Bao, Zhiming. (1999). The structure of tone. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511880-4.
  • Chen, Matthew Y. 2000. Tone Sandhi: patterns across Chinese dialects. Cambridge, England: CUP ISBN 0-521-65272-3
  • Clements, George N.; Goldsmith, John (eds.) (1984) Autosegmental Studies in Bantu Tone. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyer.
  • Fromkin, Victoria A. (ed.). (1978). Tone: A linguistic survey. New York: Academic Press.
  • Halle, Morris; & Stevens, Kenneth. (1971). A note on laryngeal features. Quarterly progress report 101. MIT.
  • Haudricourt, André-Georges. (1954). "De l'origine des tons en vietnamien". Journal Asiatique, 242: 69–82.
  • Haudricourt, André-Georges. (1961). "Bipartition et tripartition des systèmes de tons dans quelques langues d'Extrême-Orient". Bulletin de la Société de Linguistique de Paris, 56: 163–180.
  • Hombert, Jean-Marie; Ohala, John J.; Ewan, William G. Phonetic explanations for the development of tones. Language. 1979, 55 (1): 37–58. doi:10.2307/412518. JSTOR 412518. 
  • Hyman, Larry. 2007. There is no pitch-accent prototype. Paper presented at the 2007 LSA Meeting. Anaheim, CA.
  • Hyman, Larry. 2007. How (not) to do phonological typology: the case of pitch-accent. Berkeley, UC Berkeley. UC Berkeley Phonology Lab Annual Report: 654–685. Available online.
  • Kingston, John. (2005). The phonetics of Athabaskan tonogenesis. In S. Hargus & K. Rice (Eds.), Athabaskan prosody (pp. 137–184). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing.
  • Maddieson, Ian. (1978). Universals of tone. In J. H. Greenberg (Ed.), Universals of human language: Phonology (Vol. 2). Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Michaud, Alexis. (2008). Tones and intonation: some current challenges. Proc. of 8th Int. Seminar on Speech Production (ISSP'08), Strasbourg, pp. 13–18. (Keynote lecture.) Available online.
  • Odden, David. (1995). Tone: African languages. In J. Goldsmith (Ed.), Handbook of phonological theory. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
  • Pike, Kenneth L. (1948). Tone languages: A technique for determining the number and type of pitch contrasts in a language, with studies in tonemic substitution and fusion. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press. (Reprinted 1972, ISBN 0-472-08734-7).
  • Wee, Lian-Hee. Phonological Patterns in the Englishes of Singapore and Hong Kong. World Englishes. 2008, 27 (3/4): 480–501. doi:10.1111/j.1467-971X.2008.00580.x. 
  • Yip, Moira. (2002). Tone. Cambridge textbooks in linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-77314-8 (hbk), ISBN 0-521-77445-4 (pbk).
  • Иванов, Вячеслав Всеволодович К синхронной и диахронической типологии просодических систем с ларингализованными или фарингализованными тонемами // Очерки по фонологии восточных языков — ред. Т. Я. Елизаренкова. М.: Наука, 1975, стр. 3-58 (俄文)
  • Касевич, Вадим Борисович Фонологические проблемы общего и восточного языкознания М.: Наука, 1983 (俄文)
  • Кодзасов, Сандро Васильевич, Кривнова, Ольга Фёдоровна Общая фонетика. М.: РГГУ, 2001(俄文)

外部連結[编辑]