肌肽

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肌肽[1]
IUPAC名
(2S)-2-[(3-Amino-1-oxopropyl)amino]-3-(3H-imidazol-4-yl)propanoic acid
别名 β-Alanyl-L-histidine
识别
CAS号 305-84-0
PubChem 439224
ChemSpider 388363
SMILES
InChI
InChIKey CQOVPNPJLQNMDC-ZETCQYMHBX
ChEBI 57485
KEGG C00386
性质
化学式 C9H14N4O3
摩尔质量 226.23 g·mol⁻¹
外观 结晶状固体
熔点 253°C(分解)
若非注明,所有数据均出自一般条件(25 ℃,100 kPa)下。

肌肽英语carnosine),學名β-丙氨酰-L-組氨酸β-alanyl-L-histidine),是一種由β-丙氨酸L-組氨酸兩種氨基酸組成的二肽肌肉腦部組織含有很高濃度的肌肽。

肌肽是一種跟肉鹼一起由俄國化學家古列维奇發現[2]。在英國[3]、韓國[4]、俄國[5][6]及其他國家[7][8]均有研究表明:肌肽具有很強的抗氧化能力,對人體有益。肌肽已被證實可清除在氧化應激過程中使細胞膜的脂肪酸過度氧化而形成的活性氧自由基(ROS)以及α-β不飽和醛

許多研究已經發現N-乙醯肌肽在預防與治療白內障上有良好的效果,其中之一的研究顯示,肌肽可以改善因曝露在下導致大鼠水晶體混濁而產生的白內障[9] 雖然這些說法支持肌肽能治療白內障以及其他假設性對眼睛的種種好處,但截至目前為止,還沒有得到主流醫學界的充分支持,例如英國皇家眼科曾經宣稱,肌肽在局部治療白內障上,既不安全也不具療效的建議。 [10]

在一項2002年的研究報告中指出,肌肽可以改善自閉症兒童與社會的關係和增加自閉症兒童所使用的辭彙量,[11]但是研究中所宣稱的改善情形,亦可能是來自於成熟、安慰劑作用或其它沒有被寫在這份研究報告裡的因素。[12]

在動物實驗中,補充肌肽可以增加皮質固醇的含量,這也許可以解釋有時在使用高劑量肌肽所產生的過動症狀,[13]可是上述研究是將肌肽注射於小雞的腦室中,且皮質固醇含量上升的現象尚未再人體實驗中出現。 在動物實驗裡,肌肽已經被發現可以延緩癌細胞的生長[14]、 防範酒精引起的氧化壓力[15]與乙醇導致的慢性肝臟傷害,[16]在老鼠實驗中肌肽的神經保護機制可以防止永久性腦部缺血 。[17]

肌肽可以增強人類的纖維母細胞海佛烈克極限[18]以及出現端粒縮短的速率,[19] 端粒的維持可能會利於某些潛在癌症的生長,[20] 所以肌肽也被視為是個保護劑

一般認為典型的素食者缺乏攝取肌肽,但會不會因為這樣而造成不良的影響,仍是未知的。

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ C9625 L-Carnosine ~99%, crystalline. Sigma-Aldrich. 
  2. ^ Gulevich, V.; Amiradgibi, S. Uber das Carnosin, eine neue organische Base des Fleisch- extraktes.. Hoppe-Seiler's Z. Physiol. Chem. 1900, (33): 1902–1903. 
  3. ^ Aruoma OI, Laughton MJ, Halliwell B. Carnosine, homocarnosine and anserine: could they act as antioxidants in vivo?. The Biochemical Journal. 1989-12, 264 (3): 863–9. PMC 1133665. PMID 2559719. 
  4. ^ Choi SY, Kwon HY, Kwon OB, Kang JH. Hydrogen peroxide-mediated Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase fragmentation: protection by carnosine, homocarnosine and anserine. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1999-11, 1472 (3): 651–7. doi:10.1016/S0304-4165(99)00189-0. PMID 10564779. 
  5. ^ Klebanov GI, Teselkin YuO, Babenkova IV, et al.. Effect of carnosine and its components on free-radical reactions. Membrane & Cell Biology. 1998, 12 (1): 89–99. PMID 9829262. 
  6. ^ Babizhayev MA, Seguin MC, Gueyne J, Evstigneeva RP, Ageyeva EA, Zheltukhina GA. L-carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) and carcinine (beta-alanylhistamine) act as natural antioxidants with hydroxyl-radical-scavenging and lipid-peroxidase activities. The Biochemical Journal. 1994-12, 304 (2): 509–16. PMC 1137521. PMID 7998987. 
  7. ^ Chan KM, Decker EA. Endogenous skeletal muscle antioxidants. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 1994, 34 (4): 403–26. doi:10.1080/10408399409527669. PMID 7945896. 
  8. ^ Kohen R, Yamamoto Y, Cundy KC, Ames BN. Antioxidant activity of carnosine, homocarnosine, and anserine present in muscle and brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1988-05, 85 (9): 3175–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.85.9.3175. PMC 280166. PMID 3362866. 
  9. ^ Attanasio F, Cataldo S, Fisichella S, et al.. Protective effects of L- and D-carnosine on alpha-crystallin amyloid fibril formation: implications for cataract disease. Biochemistry. 2009-07, 48 (27): 6522–31. doi:10.1021/bi900343n. PMID 19441807. 
  10. ^ Amoaku, Winfried. N-Acetyl Carnosine for Cataracts. Royal College of Ophthalmologists. August 6, 2008. 
  11. ^ Chez MG, Buchanan CP, Aimonovitch MC, et al.. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of L-carnosine supplementation in children with autistic spectrum disorders. Journal of Child Neurology. 2002-11, 17 (11): 833–7. doi:10.1177/08830738020170111501. PMID 12585724. 
  12. ^ Levy SE, Hyman SL. Novel treatments for autistic spectrum disorders. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews. 2005, 11 (2): 131–42. doi:10.1002/mrdd.20062. PMID 15977319. 
  13. ^ Tomonaga, Shozu, et al. Effect of central administration of carnosine and its constituents on behaviors in chicks. Royal College of Ophthalmologists. August 6, 2008. 
  14. ^ Renner C, Zemitzsch N, Fuchs B, et al.. Carnosine retards tumor growth in vivo in an NIH3T3-HER2/neu mouse model. Molecular Cancer. 2010, 9: 2. doi:10.1186/1476-4598-9-2. PMC 2818694. PMID 20053283. 
  15. ^ Ozel Turkcu U, Bilgihan A, Biberoglu G, Mertoglu Caglar O. Carnosine supplementation protects rat brain tissue against ethanol-induced oxidative stress. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 2010-01, 339 (1–2): 55–61. doi:10.1007/s11010-009-0369-x. PMID 20047045. 
  16. ^ Liu WH, Liu TC, Yin MC. Beneficial effects of histidine and carnosine on ethanol-induced chronic liver injury. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2008-05, 46 (5): 1503–9. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2007.12.013. PMID 18222027. 
  17. ^ Min J, Senut MC, Rajanikant K, et al.. Differential Neuroprotective Effects of Carnosine, Anserine, and N-Acetyl Carnosine against Permanent Focal Ischemia. Journal of Neuroscience Research. 2008-10, 86 (13): 2984–91. doi:10.1002/jnr.21744. PMC 2805719. PMID 18543335. 
  18. ^ McFarlan GA.; Holliday R. Retardation of the senescence of cultured human fibroblasts by carnosine. Exp. Cell Res. 1994, 212 (2): 167–175. doi:10.1006/excr.1994.1132. PMID 8187813. 
  19. ^ Shao L; Li QH, Tan Z. L-carnosine reduces telomere damage and shortening rate in cultured normal fibroblasts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004, 324 (2): 931–936. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.09.136. PMID 15474517. 
  20. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11327115 Telomerase activation, cellular immortalization and cancer, Ann Med. 2001 Mar;33(2):123-9.

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