能量密度

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能量密度是指在一定的空间质量物质中储存能量的大小。如果是按质量来判定一般被称为比能

完全能量密度[编辑]

此表给出了完整系统的能量密度,包含了一切必要的外部条件,如氧化剂和热源。

能量密度表
存储形式 质量能量密度(MJ/kg) 容积能量密度(MJ/L Peak recovery efficiency % Practical recovery efficiency %
质能等价[1] 89,876,000,000
核聚变(太阳的能量来源) 645,000,000
氘-氚聚变 337,000,000
核裂变(100% 铀-235)(用于核武器 88,250,000 1,500,000,000
天然铀(99.3% U-238, 0.7% U-235)用于快滋生反应器[2] 24,000,000 50%
浓缩铀(3.5% U235)用于轻水反应堆 3,456,000 30%
Hf-178m2 isomer 1,326,000 17,649,060
Pu-238 a-decay 15,500,000
天然铀(0.7% U235)用于 轻水反应堆 443,000 30%
Ta-180m isomer 41,340 689,964
高能燃料 70
Specific orbital energy英语Specific orbital energy of Low Earth orbit(approximate) 33
Cl2O7 + CH4 - 计算值[來源請求] 17.4
Cl2O7分解---计算值[來源請求] 12.2
硝基甲烷[來源請求] 11.3 12.9
八硝基立方烷炸药--计算值[來源請求] 8.5 17
Tetranitrotetrahedrane英语Tetranitrotetrahedrane explosive - computed[來源請求] 8.3
Heptanitrocubane explosive - computed[來源請求] 8.2
Dinitroacetylene英语Dinitroacetylene explosive - computed[來源請求] 7.9
(和氯反应)[來源請求] 7.0349
Tetranitrocubane英语Tetranitrocubane explosive - computed[來源請求] 6.95
Ammonal英语Ammonal(Al+NH4NO3 oxidizer[來源請求] 6.9 12.7
Tetranitromethane + hydrazine bipropellant - computed[來源請求] 6.6
Hexanitrobenzene英语Hexanitrobenzene explosive - computed[來源請求] 6.5
奥克托今 炸药 - 计算值[來源請求] 6.3
ANFO英语ANFO-ANNM英语ANNM[來源請求] 6.26
三硝基甲苯 [Kinney, G.F.; K.J. Graham. Explosive shocks in air英语Explosive shocks in air. Springer-Verlag. 1985. ISBN 3-540-15147-8. ][來源請求] 4.610 6.92
Copper Thermite (Al + CuO as oxidizer[來源請求] 4.13 20.9
Thermite(powder Al + Fe2O3 as oxidizer 4.00 18.4
过氧化氢分解(as monopropellant英语monopropellant 2.7 3.8
纳米线电池 2.54 29
battery, Lithium Thionyl Chloride(LiSOCl2) [3] 2.5
220.64 bar, 373.8°C[來源請求] 1.968 0.708
Kinetic energy penetrator英语Kinetic energy penetrator [來源請求] 1.9 30
battery, Fluoride ion英语Fluoride ion battery [來源請求] 1.7 2.8
氢闭循环燃料电池[4]sm=n 1.62
(有毒)分解(as monopropellant英语monopropellant 1.6 1.6
硝酸铵分解(as monopropellant英语monopropellant 1.4 2.5
电容 EEStor英语EEStor生产(宣称值)[5] 1.2 5.7 99% 99%
Thermal Energy Capacity of Molten Salt英语Thermal_energy_storage#Molten_salt_technology 1[來源請求] 98%[6]
Molecular spring英语Molecular spring approximate[來源請求] 1
battery, Sodium Sulfur英语Sodium-sulfur battery 0 1.23[來源請求] 85%[7]
battery, Lithium-manganese[2][3] 0.83-1.01 1.98-2.09
锂离子电池[4][5] 0.46-0.72 0.83-0.9 95%[6]
battery, Lithium Sulphur英语Lithium sulphur battery[7] 1.26 1.26
battery, Sodium Nickel Chloride(Na-NiCl2英语Sodium Nickel Chloride battery, High Temperature 0.56
battery, Silver-oxide[2] 0.47 1.8
Flywheel 0.36-0.5[8][9]
5.56×45 NATO子弹[來源請求] 0.4 3.2
镍氢电池,消费产品的低功率产品[10] 0.4 1.55
battery, Zinc-manganese(alkaline), long life design[2][4] 0.4-0.59 1.15-1.43
battery, Zinc Bromine flow(ZnBr)英语Zinc-bromine flow battery[11] 0.27
battery, Nickel metal hydride(NiMH), High Power design as used in cars[12] 0.250 0.493
battery, Nickel cadmium(NiCd)[4] 0.14 1.08 80%[6]
battery, Zinc-Carbon[4] 0.13 0.331
battery, Lead acid[4] 0.14 0.36
battery, Vanadium redox 0.09[來源請求] 0.1188 7070-75%
battery, Vanadium Bromide redox 0.18 0.252 80%-90%[8]
Capacitor Ultracapacitor 0.0199 [9] 0.050[來源請求]
Capacitor Supercapacitor 0.01[來源請求] 80%-98.5%[10] 39%-70%[11]
Superconducting magnetic energy storage 0.008 [12] >95%
Capacitor 0.002 [13]
Spring power(clock spring), torsion spring英语torsion spring 0.0003 [14] 0.0006
存储形式 质量能量密度(MJ/kg) 容积能量密度(MJ/L Peak recovery efficiency % Practical recovery efficiency %

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ The energy density per kg of anti-matter is twice this amount.
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 ProCell Lithium battery chemistry. Duracell. [2009-04-21]. 
  3. ^ Properties of non-rechargeable lithium batteries. corrosion-doctors.org. [2009-04-21]. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Battery energy storage in various battery types. AllAboutBatteries.com. [2009-04-21]. 
  5. ^ A typically available lithium ion cell with an Energy Density of 201 wh/kg [1]
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 Justin Lemire-Elmore. The Energy Cost of Electric and Human-Powered Bicycles. 7. 2004-04-13 [2009-02-26]. "Table 3: Input and Output Energy from Batteries" 
  7. ^ Lithium Sulfur Rechargeable Battery Data Sheet. Sion Power, Inc. 2005-09-28. 
  8. ^ Storage Technology Report, ST6 Flywheel
  9. ^ Next-gen Of Flywheel Energy Storage. Product Design & Development. [2009-05-21]. 
  10. ^ Advanced Materials for Next Generation NiMH Batteries, Ovonic, 2008
  11. ^ ZBB Energy Corp. (原始内容存档于2007-10-15). "75 to 85 watt-hours per kilogram" 
  12. ^ High Energy Metal Hydride Battery

外部链接[编辑]

密度數據[编辑]

  • ^ "Aircraft Fuels." Energy, Technology and the Environment Ed. Attilio Bisio. Vol. 1. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1995. 257–259
  • "Fuels of the Future for Cars and Trucks" - Dr. James J. Eberhardt - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy - 2002 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Workshop San Diego, California - August 25–29, 2002

能量儲存[编辑]

書本[编辑]

  • The Inflationary Universe: The Quest for a New Theory of Cosmic Origins by Alan H. Guth (1998) ISBN 0-201-32840-2
  • Cosmological Inflation and Large-Scale Structure by Andrew R. Liddle, David H. Lyth (2000) ISBN 0-521-57598-2
  • Richard Becker, "Electromagnetic Fields and Interactions", Dover Publications Inc., 1964