航天器推进

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RS-68發動機正在NASA的太空中心進行試驗

太空飛行器推進是任何加速太空飛行器人造卫星的方法,目前已知具有許多方式,每一種方式都有弱點與優點。目前許多推進方式是採用火箭

推進方法[编辑]

利用行星引力進行減速
利用行星引力進行加速的示意圖,現在的太陽系內航行非常依賴這種方法進行加速

火箭發動機[编辑]

噴氣發動機[编辑]

太陽帆的想像圖

電磁加速器[编辑]

推進設備[编辑]

可能違背物理法則的推進系統[编辑]

不同的方法[编辑]

航天器推進
方法 有效排氣
速度

(km/s)
推力
(N)
持續時間 最大ΔV
(km/s)
技术成熟度
(9成最高,1為最低)
固態火箭 &0000000000000002.5000001 - 4 &0000000000100000.000000103 - 107 &0000000000000060.000000分鐘 &0000000000000007.000000~ 7 9:Flight proven
混合火箭 &0000000000000002.8500001.5 - 4.2 &0000000000001000.000000<0.1 - 107 &0000000000000060.000000分鐘 &0000000000000003.000000> 3 9:Flight proven
單裝藥火箭 (裝藥) &0000000000000002.0000001 - 3 &0000000000000003.1622780.1 - 100 &0000000000000001.000000毫秒-分鐘 &0000000000000003.000000~ 3 9:Flight proven
液態火箭 &0000000000000002.8500001 - 4.7 &0000000000001000.0000000.1 - 107 &0000000000000060.000000分鐘 &0000000000000009.000000~ 9 9:Flight proven
靜電離子推力器 &0000000000000112.50000015 - 210[1] &0000000000000000.10000010−3 - 10 &0000000009109894.427489月/年 &0000000000000100.000000> 100 9:Flight proven
霍爾推力器 (HET) &0000000000000029.0000008 - 50 &0000000000000000.10000010−3 - 10 &0000000009109894.427489月/年 &0000000000000100.000000> 100 9:Flight proven[2]
Resistojet rocket &0000000000000004.0000002 - 6 &0000000000000000.31622810−2 - 10 &0000000000000060.000000分鐘 ? 8:Flight qualified[3]
Arcjet rocket &0000000000000010.0000004 - 16 &0000000000000000.31622810−2 - 10 &0000000000000060.000000分鐘 ? 8:Flight qualified[來源請求]
Field Emission Electric Propulsion (FEEP) &0000000000000115.000000100[4]-130 &-1-1-1-1000000000000.00003210−6[4]-10−3[4] &0000000009109894.427489月/年 ? 8:Flight qualified[4]
脈衝等離子體推力器 (PPT) &0000000000000020.000000~ 20 &0000000000000000.100000~ 0.1 &0000000016099689.437998~2,000-10,000 小時 ? 7:Prototype demoed in space
雙模式推進火箭 &0000000000000002.8500001 - 4.7 &0000000000001000.0000000.1 - 107 &0000000000000001.000000毫秒-分鐘 &0000000000000006.000000~ 3 - 9 7:Prototype demoed in space
太陽帆 300,000:Light
145-750:Wind
9/km2 @ 1 AU
230/km2@0.2AU
10−10/km2@4 ly
不定 &0000000000000040.000000> 40 &0000000000000006.6670009:Light pressure attitude-control flight proven
6:Deploy-only demoed in space
5:Light-sail validated in lit vacuum
三裝藥火箭 &0000000000000003.9000002.5 - 5.3 &0000000000001000.0000000.1 - 107 &0000000000000060.000000分鐘 &0000000000000009.000000~ 9 6:Prototype demoed on ground[5]
磁等离子体动力推力器 (MPD) &0000000000000060.00000020 - 100 100 &0000000000604800.000000星期 ? 6:Model-1 kW demoed in space[6]
核热火箭 9[7] &0000000010000000.000000107[7] &0000000000000060.000000分鐘[7] &0000000000000020.000000> ~ 20 6:Prototype demoed on ground
質量投射器 (for propulsion) &0000000000000015.0000000 - ~30 &0000000001000000.000000104 - 108 &0000000002678400.000000 ? 6:Model-32MJ demoed on ground
Tether propulsion N/A &0000000001000000.0000001 - 1012 &0000000000000060.000000分鐘 &0000000000000007.000000~ 7 6:Model-31.7 km demoed in space[8]
Air-augmented rocket &0000000000000005.5000005 - 6 &0000000000001000.0000000.1 - 107 &0000000000000007.745967秒-分鐘 &0000000000000007.000000> 7? 6:Prototype demoed on ground[9][10]
Liquid air cycle engine 4.5 &0000000000100000.000000103 - 107 &0000000000000007.745967秒-分鐘 ? 6:Prototype demoed on ground
Pulsed inductive thruster (PIT) &0000000000000045.00000010[11]-80[11] 20 &0000000002678400.000000 ? 5:Component validated in vacuum[11]
可变比冲磁等离子体火箭 (VASIMR) &0000000000000155.00000010 - 300 &0000000000000620.00000040 - 1,200 &0000000000481054.840949日 - 月 &0000000000000100.000000> 100 5:Component-200 kW validated in vacuum
Magnetic field oscillating amplified thruster &0000000000000070.00000010 - 130 &0000000000000000.3162280.1 - 1 &0000000000481054.840949日 - 月 &0000000000000100.000000> 100 5:Component validated in vacuum
Solar thermal rocket &0000000000000009.5000007 - 12 &0000000000000010.0000001 - 100 &0000000000604800.000000星期 &0000000000000020.000000> ~ 20 4:Component validated in lab[12]
Radioisotope rocket &0000000000000007.5000007 - 8 &0000000000000001.4000001.3 - 1.5 &0000000002678400.000000 ? 4:Component validated in lab
Nuclear electric rocket(As electric prop. method used) 可變 可變 可變 ? 4:Component-400kW validated in lab
Orion Project (Near term nuclear pulse propulsion) &0000000000000060.00000020 - 100 &0000031622776601.683998109 - 1012 &0000000000604800.000000 &0000000000000045.000000~30-60 3:Validated-900 kg proof-of-concept[13][14]
太空電梯 N/A N/A 不定 &0000000000000012.000000> 12 3:Validated proof-of-concept
Reaction Engines SABRE[15] &0000000000000017.25000030/4.5 &0000000000001000.0000000.1 - 107 &0000000000000060.000000分鐘 9.4 3:Validated proof-of-concept
磁化帆 &0000000000000447.500000145-750:Wind 70/40Mg[16] 不定 ? 3:Validated proof-of-concept
Magnetic sail#Mini-magnetospheric plasma propulsion 200 &0000000000000400.000000~1 N/kW &0000000002678400.000000 ? 3:Validated proof-of-concept[17]
Beam-powered/Laser(As prop. method powered by beam) 可變 可變 可變 ? 3:Validated-71m proof-of-concept
发射环/Orbital ring N/A &0000000000010000.000000~104 &0000000000000060.000000分鐘 &0000000000000020.500000>>11-30 2:Technology concept formulated
核脈衝推進 (代達羅斯計劃) &0000000000000510.00000020 - 1,000 &0000031622776601.683998109 - 1012 &0000000031557600.000000 &0000000000015000.000000~15,000 2:Technology concept formulated
Gas core reactor rocket &0000000000000015.00000010 - 20 &0000000000031622.776602103 - 106 ? ? 2:Technology concept formulated
核盐水火箭 100 &0000000000100000.000000103 - 107 &0000000000001800.000000小時 ? 2:Technology concept formulated
裂變帆 ? ? ? ? 2:Technology concept formulated
Fission-fragment rocket 15,000 ? ? ? 2:Technology concept formulated
核光子火箭 300,000 &-1-100000000000000.00316210−5 - 1 &0000000099793893.488530年-幾十年 ? 2:Technology concept formulated
聚变火箭 &0000000000000550.000000100 - 1,000 ? ? ? 2:Technology concept formulated
反物質催化核脈衝推進 &0000000000002100.000000200 - 4,000 ? &0000000000228592.913276日-星期 ? 2:Technology concept formulated
反物質火箭 &0000000000055000.00000010,000-100,000 ? ? ? 2:Technology concept formulated
巴萨德冲压发动机 &0000000000010001.1000002.2 - 20,000 ? 不定 &0000000000030000.000000~30,000 2:概念构想阶段
Gravitoelectromagnetic toroidal launchers 300,000:GEM ? ? &0000000000300000.000000<300,000 1:Basic principles observed & reported
阿庫別瑞引擎 >300,000 ? ? 1:Basic principles observed & reported
方法 有效排氣
速度

(km/s)
推力
(N)
持續時間 最大ΔV
(km/s)
技術就緒水平
(9成最高,1為最低)

行星和大气发射[编辑]

某些发射方法不采用火箭或以火箭为辅助设备,这些称为非火箭航天发射

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ http://www.esa.int/esaCP/SEMOSTG23IE_index_0.html
  2. ^ Hall effect thrusters have been used on Soviet/Russian satellites for decades.
  3. ^ A Xenon Resistojet Propulsion System for Microsatellites (Surrey Space Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey)
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 http://www.alta-space.com/index.php?page=feep
  5. ^ http://www.astronautix.com/engines/rd701.htm
  6. ^ http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=ja&u=http://www.isas.jaxa.jp/ISASnews/No.190/labo-5.html
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 7.2 http://www.astronautix.com/engines/rd0410.htm
  8. ^ http://www.yes2.info/
  9. ^ Gnom
  10. ^ NASA GTX
  11. ^ 11.0 11.1 11.2 The PIT MkV pulsed inductive thruster
  12. ^ Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne Wins $2.2 Million Contract Option for Solar Thermal Propulsion Rocket Engine (Press release, June 25, 2008, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne)
  13. ^ Operation Plumbbob. 2003.July [2006-07-31]. 
  14. ^ Brownlee, Robert R. Learning to Contain Underground Nuclear Explosions. 2002.June [2006-07-31]. 
  15. ^ 引用错误:无效<ref>标签;未为name属性为SABRE的引用提供文字
  16. ^ http://www.psfc.mit.edu/library1/catalog/reports/2000/05ja/05ja026/05ja026_full.pdf
  17. ^ MagBeam

外部連結[编辑]