苏联对基督徒的迫害

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在整个苏联的历史中,基督教都受到压制和迫害,只是随着时期不同而程度有别。这种迫害有着马克思列宁主义无神论的治国方针的内因,在这种理论的驱使下,苏联政府一直主张对宗教采取控制、打压甚至消灭的手段。[1]出于消灭宗教的责任感,[2][3]苏联政府对教堂, 清真寺犹太教堂进行大量平毁。政府还通过各种手段嘲笑、骚扰和处决宗教领袖,在学校和媒体里充斥满无神论的声音,说无神论是社会唯一应当信奉的真理。[4][5] 苏联的国家无神论政策下被消灭的基督徒估计在一千二百到二千万之间。[6][7][8] 但是在相当多的人群当中仍在持续着宗教的行为,[4],它们不仅存在于私人空间也存在于政府允许的有限公共空间里,这些公共空间是政府在意识到不可能根除宗教,强行蛮干只会惹来无穷的文化战争后给予的。[2][9]

註釋[编辑]

  1. ^ http://www.country-data.com/cgi-bin/query/r-12521.html
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Daniel, Wallace L. "Father Aleksandr men and the struggle to recover Russia's heritage." Demokratizatsiya 17.1 (2009)
  3. ^ Froese, Paul. "'I am an atheist and a Muslim': Islam, communism, and ideological competition." Journal of Church and State 47.3 (2005)
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Paul Froese. Forced Secularization in Soviet Russia: Why an Atheistic Monopoly Failed. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol. 43, No. 1 (Mar., 2004), pp. 35-50
  5. ^ Haskins, Ekaterina V. "Russia's postcommunist past: the Cathedral of Christ the Savior and the reimagining of national identity." History and Memory: Studies in Representation of the Past 21.1 (2009)
  6. ^ Estimates of the total number all Christian martyrs in the former Soviet Union are about 12 million.”, James M. Nelson, “Psychology, Religion, and Spirituality”, Springer, 2009, ISBN 0-387-87572-7, p. 427
  7. ^ In all, it is estimated that some 15 to 20 million Christians were martyred under the Soviet regime”, David Barrett, “World Christian Trends”, Pasadena: William Carey Library, 2001, cited by David Taylor, ”21 Signs of His Coming: Major Biblical Prophecies Being Fulfilled In Our Generation”, Taylor Publishing Group, 2009, ISBN 0-9762933-4-X, p. 220
  8. ^ over 20 million were martyred in Soviet prison camps”, Todd M. Johnson, “Christian Martyrdom: A global demographic assessment“, p. 4
  9. ^ John Shelton Curtis, The Russian Church and the Soviet State (Boston: Little Brown, 1953); Jane Ellis, The Russian Orthodox Church: A Contemporary History (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986); Dimitry V. Pospielovsky, The Russian Church Under the Soviet Regime 1917-1982 (St. Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 1984); idem., A History of Marxist-Leninist Atheism and Soviet Anti-Religious Policies (New York; St. Martin’s Press, 1987); Glennys Young, Power and the Sacred in Revolutionary Russia: Religious Activists in the Village (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997); Daniel Peris, Storming the Heavens: The Soviet League of the Militant Godless (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1998); William B. Husband, “Godless Communists”: Atheism and Society in Soviet Russia (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2000; Edward Roslof, Red Priests: Renovationism, Russian Orthodoxy, and Revolution, 1905-1946 (Bloomington, Indiana, 2002)

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