英属印度诸省

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印度次大陆,历史上官方根据统治的需要以“”(Province)名作为一级行政区存在的时间,从1858年英国东印度公司开始,到1950年印度宪法颁布生效不到一百年。1947年印度独立,印巴分治分治后,在印度共和国,作为一级行政区存在的时间仅三年,其区划调整幅度不大,之后撤省建立中央直辖区,故实际上在印度共和国,省仅为英属印度时期的行政区划。在巴基斯坦,其直属中央政府的一级行政区一直沿用原有省名,区划调整不大。

自1612年英国在苏拉特建立第一个贸易据点开始,整个17世纪英国人控制了扩展到占据印度次大陆三个沿海海岸,包括孟买金奈加尔各答,这三个城市都是当时的东印度公司(即之后的英属印度)管辖区(或称省)的行政中心,三大管区均设有行政长官即省长,其中孟加拉省(孟加拉管区)省长成为后来的印度总督。这些省份都是通过战争手段扩大的领土,19世纪中叶推行所谓的“无嗣失权”(Doctrine of lapse)政策,印度总督在土邦王公去世没有直系继承的情况下,获得部分土地,至此英属印度诸省覆盖约印度次大陆一半的面积,区内人口达到次大陆人口60%。这些地区具体由总督指定的省长、副省长、高级专员、专员和行政官员领导,接受英国为宗主国的当地王公继续实行自治的土邦制度。

英属印度诸省[编辑]

独立后的印度诸省[编辑]

參考文獻[编辑]

  • Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. II, The Indian Empire, Historical, Published under the authority of His Majesty's Secretary of State for India in Council, Oxford at the Clarendon Press. Pp. xxxv, 1 map, 573., 1908 
  • Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. III, The Indian Empire, Economic (Chapter X: Famine, pp. 475–502, Published under the authority of His Majesty's Secretary of State for India in Council, Oxford at the Clarendon Press. Pp. xxxvi, 1 map, 520., 1907 
  • Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV, The Indian Empire, Administrative, Published under the authority of His Majesty's Secretary of State for India in Council, Oxford at the Clarendon Press. Pp. xxx, 1 map, 552., 1907 
  • Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. II, The Indian Empire, Historical, Published under the authority of His Majesty's Secretary of State for India in Council, Oxford at the Clarendon Press. Pp. xxxv, 1 map, 573., 1908 

延伸閱讀[编辑]

  • Bandyopadhyay, Sekhar, From Plassey to Partition: A History of Modern India, New Delhi and London: Orient Longmans. Pp. xx, 548., 2004, ISBN 8125025960 .
  • Brown, Judith M., Modern India: The Origins of an Asian Democracy, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. xiii, 474, 1994, ISBN 0198731132 .
  • Copland, Ian, India 1885-1947: The Unmaking of an Empire (Seminar Studies in History Series), Harlow and London: Pearson Longmans. Pp. 160, 2001, ISBN 0582381738 
  • Judd, Dennis, The Lion and the Tiger: The Rise and Fall of the British Raj, 1600-1947, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. xiii, 280, 2004, ISBN 0192803581 
  • Majumdar, R. C.; Raychaudhuri, H. C.; Datta, Kalikinkar, An Advanced History of India, London: Macmillan and Company Limited. 2nd edition. Pp. xiii, 1122, 7 maps, 5 coloured maps., 1950 .
  • Markovits, Claude (ed), A History of Modern India 1480-1950 (Anthem South Asian Studies), Anthem Press. Pp. 607, 2005, ISBN 1843311526 .
  • Metcalf, Barbara; Metcalf, Thomas R., A Concise History of Modern India(Cambridge Concise Histories), Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. Pp. xxxiii, 372, 2006, ISBN 0521682258 .
  • Peers, Douglas M., India under Colonial Rule 1700-1885, Harlow and London: Pearson Longmans. Pp. xvi, 163, 2006, ISBN 0-582-31738-X .
  • Sarkar, Sumit, Modern India: 1885-1947, Delhi: Macmillan India Ltd. Pp. xiv, 486, 1983, ISBN 0333904257 
  • Smith, Vincent A., India in the British Period: Being Part III of the Oxford History of India, Oxford: At the Clarendon Press. 2nd edition. Pp. xxiv, 316 (469-784), 1921 .
  • Spear, Percival, A History of India, Volume 2: From the sixteenth century to the twentieth century, New Delhi and London: Penguin Books. Pp. 298, 1990, ISBN 0140138366 .

外部連結[编辑]