- AuE = 澳大利亚英语
- CaE = 加拿大英语
- GA = 通用美国英语
- InE = 印度英语
- IrE = 爱尔兰英语
- NZE = 新西兰英语
- RP = 公认发音（英国标准）
- ScE = 苏格兰英语
- SAE = 南非英语
- SSE = 新加坡标准英语
- WaE = 威尔士英语
|.||音节分隔号，例如ice cream /ˈaɪs.kriːm/、I scream /ˌaɪ.ˈskriːm/|
- ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 This is the compromise IPA transcription used in the entries of Wikipedia articles. It covers most dialects of English.
- ^ Pronounced [ɾ] in some positions in GA and Australian English, and is possible in RP in words like butter, [ʔ] in some positions in Scottish English, English English, American English and Australian English, and [t̞] non-initially in Irish English.
- ^ Pronounced [ɾ] in some positions in GA and Australian English.
- ^ Pronounced [t̪] in Irish English, Newfoundland English, and New York English, merges with /f/ in some varieties of English English, and merges with /t/ in some varieties of Caribbean English. [t̪] also occurs in other dialects as an allophone of θ.
- ^ Pronounced [d̪] in Irish English, Newfoundland English, and New York English, merges with /v/ in some varieties of English English, and merges with /d/ in some varieties of Caribbean English. [d̪] also occurs in other dialects as an allophone of ð
- ^ Marginal elsewhere, and otherwise merged with /k/, see Lock–loch merger.
- ^ This common English interjection is usually pronounced with [x] in unscripted spoken English, but it's most often pronounced /ʌɡ/ or /ʌk/
- ^ /h/ is often pronounced [ɦ] between vowel sounds and after voiced consonants
- ^ /h/ is pronounced [ç] before the palatal approximant, /j/, and the front vowels in most English dialects
- ^ /m/ is pronounced ɱ before f and v (e.g. symphony [ˈsɪɱfəni], circumvent [ˌsɝkəɱˈvɛnt], some value [sʌɱ'væɫjuː])
- ^ In some dialects (e.g. Brummie) "ringer", "sing" etc are pronounced with an additional /ɡ/, like "finger": /ˈɹɪŋɡə/ rather than /ˈɹɪŋə/
- ^ [ɫ] traditionally does not occur in Irish English; [l] does not occur in Australian, New Zealand, Scottish, or American English. RP and some other English accents, along with South African English, however, have clear [l] in syllable onsets and dark [ɫ] in syllable rimes.
- ^ L-vocalization as [ɤ] is prevalent in Standard Singapore English.
- ^ L-vocalization as [w], [o], and [ʊ] occurs in New Zealand English and many regional accents not included in the chart. Notably Cockney, New York English, Estuary English, Pittsburgh English, and African-American Vernacular English.
- ^ The tap [ɾ] is found in some varieties of Scottish and Irish English.
- ^ Some dialects, such as Scottish English, Irish English, and much of the American South dialects, distinguish ʍ from w; see whine and wine and voiceless labiovelar approximant
- ^ /ɔː, aʊ, ɔɪ/ are never reduced. In some dialects, such as Australian, all reduced vowels become [ə].
- ^ Harrington, Cox & Evans (1997)
- ^ Kenyon & Knott (1944/1953)
- ^ Kenyon (1950)
- ^ 21.0 21.1 Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009)
- ^ Sailaja (2009:19–26)
- ^ Wells (1982:422)
- ^ Bauer et al. (2007:97–102)
- ^ Roach (2004:241–243). See Pronunciation respelling for English#International Phonetic Alphabet for the alternative system devised by Clive Upton for Oxford University Press dictionaries.
- ^ Case Studies – Received Pronunciation Phonology – RP Vowel Sounds. British Library.
- ^ Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006:7)
- ^ Bekker (2008)
- ^ Lass (2002:111–119)
- ^ Coupland (1990)
- ^ See bad–lad split for this distinction.
- ^ Suzanna Bet Hashim and Brown, Adam (2000) 'The [e] and [æ] vowels in Singapore English'. In Adam Brown, David Deterding and Low Ee Ling (eds.) The English Language in Singapore: Research on Pronunciation, Singapore: Singapore Association for Applied Linguistics ISBN 981-04-2598-8, pp. 84–92.
- ^ Often transcribed /a/ for RP, for example in dictionaries of the Oxford University Press.
- ^ Deterding, David (2003) 'An instrumental study of the monophthong vowels of Singapore English', English World Wide, 24(1), 1–16.
- ^ ɒ~ɔ occurs in American accents without the cot–caught merger (about half of today's speakers); the rest have ɑ.
- ^ In American accents without the cot–caught merger, the LOT vowel (generally written o) appears as ɒ~ɔ instead of ɑ before the fricatives /f/, /θ/ and /s/ and the velar nasal /ŋ/; also usually before /ɡ/, especially in single-syllable words (dog, log, frog, etc.), and occasionally before /k/ (as in chocolate). See lot–cloth split. In American accents with the cot–caught merger (about half of today's speakers), only ɑ occurs.
- ^ It is not clear whether this a true phonemic split, since the distribution of the two sounds is predictable; see Kit–bit split.
- ^ 38.0 38.1 Deterding, David (2000) 'Measurements of the /eɪ/ and /oʊ/ vowels of young English speakers in Singapore'. In Adam Brown, David Deterding and Low Ee Ling (eds.), The English Language in Singapore: Research on Pronunciation, Singapore: Singapore Association for Applied Linguistics, pp. 93–99.
- ^ Tay Wan, Joo, Mary. 'The phonology of educated Singapore English'. English World-Wide. 1982, 3 (2): 135–45.
- ^ Often transcribed /e/ for RP, for example in Collins English Dictionary.
- ^ 41.0 41.1 41.2 41.3 41.4 41.5 See Fern–fir–fur merger for this distinction.
- ^ Sometimes transcribed for GA as [əɹ], especially in transcriptions that represent both rhotic and non-rhotic pronunciations, as [ə(ɹ)].
- ^ In Welsh English, you, yew and ewe are /juː/, /jɪu/ and /ɪu/ respectively; in all other varieties of English they are homophones.
- ^ 44.0 44.1 Canadian English has a phenomenon called Canadian raising in which raised diphthongs [ʌi̯] and [ʌu̯] are found before voiceless consonants, as in right [ɹʷʌi̯t] and out [ʌu̯t]; in other environments, [aɪ̯] and [aʊ̯] are used. In much of U.S. English, this happens with [ʌɪ̯], primarily when a voiceless consonant phoneme follows /aɪ̯/. For example, dike, life, and sight end with voiceless /k/, /f/, and /t/, so the diphthongs differ from those in wives and side, which have voiced /v/ and /d/. For some speakers, [ʌɪ̯] also occurs before voiced consonants when another syllable follows, but only when no morpheme break occurs; hence [ʌɪ̯] in tiger and/or spider, but [aɪ̯] in rider because -er is a separate morpheme. Most U.S. English distinguishes between writer [ˈɹʌɪ̯ɾəɹ] and rider [ˈɹaɪ̯ɾəɹ] purely based on this vowel difference.
- ^ Lee, Ee May and Lim, Lisa (2000) ' Diphthongs in Singaporean English: their realisations across different formality levels, and some attitudes of listeners towards them. In Adam Brown, David Deterding and Low Ee Ling (eds.), The English Language in Singapore: Research on Pronunciation, Singapore: Singapore Association for Applied Linguistics, pp. 100–111.
- ^ While the actual pronunciation is [ɛə(ɹ) ~ ɛː(ɹ)], it can also be transcribed /eə(ɹ)/.
- ^ Roach (2004) notes that many people in England use [ɔː] for this vowel, but also that RP traditionally distinguishes between maw /mɔː/ and moor /mʊə/, tore /tɔː/ and tour /tʊə/, as well as paw /pɔː/ and poor /pʊə/.
- IPA chart with MP3 sound files for all IPA symbols on the chart (limited version is available to anyone)
- The International Phonetic Alphabet (revised to 2005) Symbols for all languages are shown on this one-page chart.
- lexconvert a GPL command-line program to convert between Unicode IPA and the ASCII notations of various English speech synthesizers
- Online IPA editor for English
- Online/Offline IPA editor for English
- IPA transcription systems for English – discussion by John C. Wells of RP transcriptions