華氏式別

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以華氏式別分類的蒸氣機車
1900年代的华氏式别手册。[1]

華氏式別(Whyte notation),又称华氏轮式,是鐵路蒸氣機車轮式分類法之一,由美國鐵路工程師弗雷德里克·梅斯文·华特(Frederick Methvan Whyte)提出[2]。1900年12月出版的“美国工程师及铁路学报”(American Engineer and Railroad Journal)率先对华氏式别进行介绍和宣传,随后华氏式别在20世紀初期開始使用,并迅速普及成为世界上最普遍的蒸汽机车分类法。這種分類法的原理是顺序计算機車前端的導輪、中間的動輪及後端的從輪數量,这三组数字之间以连接号相隔[3]。华氏式别作为按车轮数量的分类法,其原则和其他以车轴数量分类的蒸汽机车分类法,例如UIC分類法法式式别(French Notation)、德式式别(German Notation)等,有着明显的区别。

因此,以一台拥有2根导轴、3根动轴和1根从轴、合共6轴的蒸汽机车为例,即相当于拥有4个導轮、6个动轮和2个从轮,其华氏轮式为“4-6-2”。

方法及演变[编辑]

尽管蒸汽机车不断推陈出新,为了满足各种机车的规范化,华氏式别也有相应的演变,但其模式和原理依然是相同的。

后缀[编辑]

在某些情况下华氏轮式除数字外也会带有后缀,以表示机车更多的属性。后缀“T”代表这是一台自带煤水柜的水柜式蒸汽机车,如果没有后缀则自动归类为煤水车式蒸汽机车。在英国的制度中,亦会同时以后缀来表示煤水柜的类型,例如“T”代表侧式水柜、“PT”代表鞍式水柜、“WT”代表井式水柜、“T+T”代表机车可以使用额外的煤水车携带更多燃料。

此外在欧洲也有一些不常见的后缀,例如“ng”代表窄轨机车、“CA”或“ca”代表以压缩空气驱动的无火机车

关节式机车[编辑]

1884年,瑞士工程师阿纳托尔·马莱特(Anatole Mallet)发明了关节式机车[4],容许两台固定连接、拥有各自蒸汽机的机车共用同一个锅炉,表面上看来是一台机车但实际上是两台或以上机车的结合,机车轮轴增多、牵引力大、通过曲线性能好,盖拉特式(Garratt)是其中一个最著名的例子。对于这种情况,在表示轮式时两台机车之间以「+」號標示,两台固定连接的“太平洋型”(Pacific,4-6-2)盖拉特式机车,其華氏識別為「4-6-2+2-6-4」。

其他形式的关节式机车,例如马莱特式(Mallet),由于两台实体机车的动轴之间并没有从轴,因此代表从轴的数字可以省略。例如聯合太平洋鐵路的4000型「大男孩」(Big Boy)機車,華氏式別為「4-8-8-4」,代表機車擁有2根导轴(4個導輪),两台蒸汽机分別驱动4根动轴(8個動輪),并有2根从轴(4個從輪)。

内燃机车[编辑]

在英国,两轴至三轴小型柴油机车或汽油机车也可以用华氏蒸汽机车式别法来分类,方式相同但由于内燃机车不需要导轮和从轮,因此首尾的数字均是“0”,例如“0-4-0”、“0-6-0”、“0-8-0”。另外也可以加上后缀,例如“D”代表柴油机车、“P”代表汽油机车、“E”代表电力传动、“H”代表液力传动、“M”代表机械传动。而为了简单表示,或可以以“w”代替除动轴数量以外的其他部分。因此,“0-6-0DE”就代表一台三轴的电传动柴油机车,简写“6wDE”。

对于更大型的内燃机车,英国则按国际标准采用UIC分類法

轮式命名[编辑]

美国的传统上习惯将常见的机车轮式命名,并对应华氏轮式,通常是将首种采用该轮式的机车名称来命名。

轮式
(车头向左)
华氏式别 命名 中译
普通单节式机车
WheelArrangement 0-2-2.svg 0-2-2 Northumbrian 诺森伯兰式
WheelArrangement 2-2-0.svg 2-2-0 Planet 地球式
WheelArrangement 2-2-2.svg 2-2-2 Single,[2] Jenny Lind 珍尼·林德式
WheelArrangement 2-2-4.svg 2-2-4  
WheelArrangement 4-2-0.svg 4-2-0 Jervis[5] 吉維斯式
WheelArrangement 4-2-2.svg 4-2-2 Bicycle 自行车式
WheelArrangement 4-2-4.svg 4-2-4  
WheelArrangement 6-2-0.svg 6-2-0 Crampton[6] 克兰普顿式
WheelArrangement 0-4-0.svg 0-4-0 Four-Coupled 四轮式
WheelArrangement 0-4-2.svg 0-4-2  
WheelArrangement 0-4-4.svg 0-4-4 Forney[1] 福尼式
WheelArrangement 2-4-0.svg 2-4-0 Porter, 'Old English'[7] 波特式
WheelArrangement 2-4-2.svg 2-4-2 Columbia[1] 哥伦比亚式
WheelArrangement 2-4-4.svg 2-4-4  
WheelArrangement 4-4-0.svg 4-4-0 American,[1][8] Eight-wheeler 美国式
WheelArrangement 4-4-2.svg 4-4-2 Atlantic[1][9] 大西洋式
WheelArrangement 4-4-4.svg 4-4-4 Reading, Jubilee (Canada)[10]
WheelArrangement 0-6-0.svg 0-6-0 Six-Coupled,[1] Bourbonnais (France), USRA 0-6-0 (United States) 六轮式
WheelArrangement 0-6-2.svg 0-6-2  
WheelArrangement 0-6-4.svg 0-6-4 Forney six-coupled[1] 福尼六轮式
WheelArrangement 2-6-0.svg 2-6-0 Mogul[1][11] 莫卧儿式
WheelArrangement 2-6-2.svg 2-6-2 Prairie[1][2] 草原式
WheelArrangement 2-6-4.svg 2-6-4 Adriatic 双端式
WheelArrangement 2-6-6.svg 2-6-6
WheelArrangement 4-6-0.svg 4-6-0 Ten-Wheeler[1][12] (not Britain)[13] 十轮式
WheelArrangement 4-6-2.svg 4-6-2 Pacific[1][2][14][15] 太平洋式
WheelArrangement 4-6-4.svg 4-6-4 Hudson,[16] Baltic[2] 哈得逊式
WheelArrangement 0-8-0.svg 0-8-0 Eight-Coupled,[1] USRA 0-8-0 (United States) 八轮式
WheelArrangement 0-8-2.svg 0-8-2  [17]
WheelArrangement 0-8-4.svg 0-8-4  
WheelArrangement 2-8-0.svg 2-8-0 Consolidation[1][2][18] 巩固式
WheelArrangement 2-8-2.svg 2-8-2 Mikado,[1][2] Mike, MacArthur[19][20] 天皇式
WheelArrangement 2-8-4.svg 2-8-4 Berkshire, Kanawha[21][22] 卡納瓦式
WheelArrangement 2-8-6.svg 2-8-6
WheelArrangement 4-8-0.svg 4-8-0 Mastodon, Twelve-Wheeler[1]
WheelArrangement 4-8-2.svg 4-8-2 Mountain,[2][23] Mohawk[24] 山岳式
WheelArrangement 4-8-4.svg 4-8-4 Northern, Niagara, Confederation, Dixie, Greenbrier, Pocono, Potomac, Golden State, Western, General, Wyoming (Lehigh Valley[25]), Governor, Big Apple, GS Series "Daylight" (Southern Pacific)[26] 联盟式、北方式
WheelArrangement 4-8-6.svg 4-8-6
WheelArrangement 6-8-6.svg 6-8-6 [27]
WheelArrangement 0-10-0.svg 0-10-0 Ten-Coupled,[1][28]Decapod
WheelArrangement 0-10-2.svg 0-10-2 Union[28]
WheelArrangement 2-10-0.svg 2-10-0 Decapod[1][29] 得家宝式
WheelArrangement 2-10-2.svg 2-10-2 Santa Fe,[1] Central, Decapod(美国南太平洋铁路) 圣达菲式
WheelArrangement 2-10-4.svg 2-10-4 Texas, Colorado, Selkirk (Canada)[30]
WheelArrangement 4-10-0.svg 4-10-0 Mastodon,[1] Gobernador
WheelArrangement 4-10-2.svg 4-10-2 Southern Pacific, Overland[31]
WheelArrangement 0-12-0.svg 0-12-0 Twelve-Coupled 十二轮式
WheelArrangement 2-12-0.svg 2-12-0 Centipede[1]
WheelArrangement 2-12-2.svg 2-12-2 Javanic
WheelArrangement 2-12-4.svg 2-12-4  
WheelArrangement 4-12-2.svg 4-12-2 Union Pacific
WheelArrangement 4-14-4.svg 4-14-4 AA20[32]
复式蒸汽机车(Duplex locomotive)
WheelArrangement 4-4-4-4.svg 4-4-4-4 (PRR T1)[33]
WheelArrangement 6-4-4-6.svg 6-4-4-6 (PRR S1)[34]
WheelArrangement 4-4-6-4.svg 4-4-6-4 (PRR Q2)[35]
WheelArrangement 4-6-4-4.svg 4-6-4-4 (PRR Q1)
马莱特关节式蒸汽机车[19]
WheelArrangement 0-4-4-0.svg 0-4-4-0 Bavarian BB II [36]
WheelArrangement 2-4-0.svgWheelArrangement 0-4-0.svg 2-4-4-0  
WheelArrangement 0-4-0.svgWheelArrangement 0-4-2.svg 0-4-4-2  
WheelArrangement 2-4-4-2.svg 2-4-4-2  
WheelArrangement 0-6-6-0.svg 0-6-6-0 Erie
WheelArrangement 2-6-6-0.svg 2-6-6-0 Denver & Salt Lake
WheelArrangement 2-6-6-2.svg 2-6-6-2  
WheelArrangement 2-6-6-4.svg 2-6-6-4 Norfolk & Western
WheelArrangement 2-6-6-6.svg 2-6-6-6 Allegheny,[37] Blue Ridge
WheelArrangement 4-6-6-2.svg 4-6-6-2 [38]
WheelArrangement 4-6-6-4.svg 4-6-6-4 Challenger[39]
WheelArrangement 2-6-8-0.svg 2-6-8-0 [40]
WheelArrangement 0-8-8-0.svg 0-8-8-0 Angus
WheelArrangement 2-8-8-0.svg 2-8-8-0 Bull Moose
WheelArrangement 2-8-8-2.svg 2-8-8-2 Chesapeake
WheelArrangement 2-8-8-4.svg 2-8-8-4 Yellowstone[41]
WheelArrangement 4-8-8-2.svg 4-8-8-2 [38]
WheelArrangement 4-8-8-4.svg 4-8-8-4 Big Boy[42] 青年式
WheelArrangement 2-10-10-2.svg 2-10-10-2 (Santa Fe and Virginian railroads)[40]
WheelArrangement 2-8-8-8-2.svg 2-8-8-8-2 Triplex (Erie RR)
WheelArrangement 2-8-8-8-4.svg 2-8-8-8-4 Triplex (Virginian RR)[43]
盖拉特关节式蒸汽机车
WheelArrangement 0-4-0+0-4-0.svg 0-4-0+0-4-0  
WheelArrangement 2-6-2+2-6-2.svg 2-6-2+2-6-2  

参看[编辑]

参考文献[编辑]

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外部链接[编辑]