羅利達拉姆國際機場

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羅利達拉姆國際機場
机场概览
机场类型 公共
官方網站 www.rdu.com
机场代码
IATA:RDU – ICAO:KRDU – FAA:RDU
地理位置
位置 北卡羅來納州韋克縣Cedar Fork鎮
经纬度 35°52′40″N 078°47′15″W / 35.87778°N 78.78750°W / 35.87778; -78.78750
跑道
方向 表面 长度
英尺 米 
5L/23R 混凝土 10,000 3,048
5R/23L 瀝青 7,500 2,286
14/32 瀝青 3,570 1,088
统计数据
客运量
起降架次 185,856
旅客吞吐量 9,186,748
來源: RDU網站[1]

羅利達拉姆國際機場位於美國北卡羅來納州,是該州羅利(Raleigh)和達拉姆(Durham)雙子城共用的民用國際機場。該機場位於羅利市區東北約7公里處。機場佔地4929公頃,共有3條跑道,通航國內國際共38個機場,日起降352架次。2011年旅客吞吐量逾900萬。RDU機場管理局負責機場設施及運營,RDU機場管理局的控制方為韋克縣達拉姆縣羅利市達拉姆市選出的代表。


歷史[编辑]

早期[编辑]

File:RDU hist.jpg
Early photo of Raleigh–Durham Airport.

The region's first airport opened in 1929 as Raleigh's Municipal Airport, just south of what is now downtown. It was quickly outgrown, and in 1939 the North Carolina General Assembly chartered the Raleigh–Durham Aeronautical Authority to build and operate a replacement airport convenient to both Raleigh and Durham. This was also promoted by Eastern Air Lines, led by then chairman Eddie Rickenbacker who sought to make Raleigh–Durham a stop on the airline's New York-Miami route.

The new Raleigh–Durham Airport opened on May 1, 1943 with flights by Eastern Airlines. The passenger terminal was built from materials remaining after the construction of four barracks for the Army Air Forces Air Technical Service Command airfield.[2] The three runways the airport had in 1951 are still visible on the southeast side of the airport: 4500-ft runway 5, 4500-ft runway 18 and 4490-ft runway 14.

After World War II Capital Airlines joined Eastern at RDU; Piedmont Airlines arrived in 1948. The April 1957 Official Airline Guide shows 36 departures a day: twenty Eastern, eight Capital and eight Piedmont. Nonstop flights did not reach beyond Washington, Atlanta, or the Appalachians (but Eastern started a Super Constellation nonstop to Newark in 1958).[來源請求] The next airline (aside from United's takeover of Capital in 1961) was Delta Air Lines in 1970.[來源請求] In April 1969 nonstops didn't reach beyond New York or Atlanta, and Chicago was the only nonstop west of the Appalachians.

In the 1970s, the last decade before airline deregulation, Piedmont connected RDU to Charlotte, Greensboro, New Bern, Norfolk, Richmond, Rocky Mount, Washington, Wilmington and Winston-Salem.[3] United flew to Asheville, Charlotte, Huntsville and Newark,[4] while Eastern flew to Atlanta, Charlotte, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Richmond and Washington,[5] and Delta flew to Chicago and Greensboro.[6]

After deregulation Allegheny Airlines arrived in 1979 and by 1985 Trans World Airlines, American Airlines, Ozark, People Express, New York Air, and Pan Am had all put in appearances.

An American Airlines Boeing 777 flight from London Gatwick Airport lands at RDU. (2005)

樞紐時期[编辑]

American Airlines built a terminal at RDU between 1985 and 1987 to house a new hub operation,[7] and offered service to 38 cities at the hub's outset in June 1987.[8] The RDU hub operated at a loss even during its heyday in the early 1990s, along with the north-south hubs AA then had at Nashville and San Jose.[9]

The hub's traffic peaked in 1991. Although the Raleigh/Durham area had growing local traffic, the connecting hub faced intense competition from Delta and Eastern in Atlanta and from USAir in Charlotte, as well as the short-lived Continental Airlines hub in Greensboro which opened in 1993. American began to consider closing the hub in late 1993; operations were gradually downsized through June 1995, when American formally closed the hub, retaining flights to only three other hubs and London.[10]

Midway Airlines replaced AA as the airport's hub carrier from 1995 until 2003.[11] In 1995, Midway had flights to Boston, Hartford, Long Island, Newark, Newburgh, New York, Philadelphia, and Washington in the Northeast, and to Fort Lauderdale, Jacksonville, Orlando, Tampa and West Palm Beach in Florida.[12] American subleased its gates at RDU to Midway in order to repay $113 million in American-guaranteed bonds which had been used to construct the hub facilities.[13] Midway suspended service for some time after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, ceased operations in 2002 and filed for bankruptcy in 2003.

AA retained the daily nonstop flight to London, originally launched to Gatwick Airport in May 1994 with a Boeing 767-200ER. The route continues to operate, partly due to the needs of the region's corporate travelers, particularly those of GlaxoSmithKline which has major bases of operation in west London near Heathrow Airport and in the Research Triangle Park near RDU. On March 29, 2008 American Airlines moved its London flight to Heathrow Airport. The RDU-London flight used three-class Boeing 777-200s for several years and is now operated by two-class Boeing 767-300ERs.

後樞紐時期[编辑]

An overview of the airport. (2009)

RDU's post-hub years have brought the addition of several new carriers (notably Southwest Airlines and new destinations). Due to high fuel prices AMR ended the flights to Jacksonville, Kansas City, Newark and Louisville. Mainline flights to Austin, Columbus, New York (LaGuardia) and St. Louis were also dropped. Other cities saw reduced service or downgrade of service. Other airlines cut flights and destinations also, including United's service to Denver, US Airways' services to Las Vegas and Phoenix. ExpressJet ended its independent flights to Kansas City and New Orleans (ExpressJet now only operates as United Express and Delta Connection). In 2008 RDU lost over 30 flights compared to March 2008 schedule.

Southwest Airlines Boeing 737 on approach to runway 23R

In 2010 RDU's traffic began to recover. In the first few months of the year passenger numbers stabilized at RDU, ending the decrease in 2008/2009. In the first four months of 2010, 2.7 million passengers traveled through RDU.[14] Growth was flat, compared to the same period a year ago, but these signs were positive, indicating that the decline was over. Also, after cutting service, carriers at RDU began to add (or re-add) new service to the schedule. In April 2010 Midwest Airlines resumed service from RDU, adding service to Milwaukee.[15] This route ended when Midwest was acquired by Frontier Airlines. Southwest Airlines, which began service to RDU in June 1999,[16] had also aggressively expanded at RDU, adding service to St. Louis in May, and replacing American Airlines as the largest carrier at RDU.[17][18] JetBlue Airways also increased service to Boston in May 2010.[19]

Delta Air Lines has increased operations since 2010, with resumed nonstop service to Los Angeles in June 2010,[20] followed by new nonstop service to Columbus, Fort Myers, Hartford, Miami, Orlando, St. Louis and Tampa, and additional frequencies to Boston, Minneapolis-St. Paul and New York (JFK), in November 2010, and new services to Albany (NY) and Providence in April 2011.

In February 2011 Continental Airlines commenced its first international flight from RDU, to Cancún. Delta added three daily flights to Baltimore in September 2011. In November Vision Airlines began operations at RDU, and added a twice weekly flight to Freeport.[21] This service was taken over by Bahamasair in May 2012. United Airlines started the airport's first non-stop flight to San Francisco in August 2012. In December 2012 American Airlines announced the airport's first daily non-stop flight to Los Angeles, beginning in April 2013.

航廈、航空公司和航點[编辑]

Domestic destinations from RDU as of January 2013.
Southwest Airlines Boeing 737 aircraft docked at the upper gates of Terminal 1.
A Northwest Airlines (Merged into Delta) Airbus A320 landing on Runway 5L/23R

羅利達拉姆國際機場擁有第一航廈(A24-A28登機口)、第二航廈(C廊C1-C25登機口,D廊D1-D20登機口)共兩座航廈,其中C23、C24和C25是國際登機口,且最大可停靠波音747型飛機。

航空公司 直飞航点 航廈
加拿大航空快運
Jazz Air運營
多倫多/皮爾森 2D
AirTran Airways西南航空運營 亞特蘭大, 勞德代堡, 奧蘭多, 坦帕 1A
美國航空 芝加哥/奧黑爾, 達拉斯沃斯堡, 倫敦/希思羅, 洛杉磯, 邁阿密 2C
美鷹航空Envoy 運營 芝加哥/奧黑爾, 紐約/肯尼迪, 紐約/拉瓜蒂亞, 華盛頓/國家 2C
達美航空 亞特蘭大, 底特律, 拉斯維加斯 (2013年3月2日起),[22] 洛杉磯, 鹽湖城
Seasonal: 坎昆, 明尼阿波利斯聖保羅
2C
Delta Connection
operated by Chautauqua Airlines
Columbus (OH), Hartford, Philadelphia 2C
Delta Connection
operated by Compass Airlines
Detroit, Indianapolis, Minneapolis/St. Paul, New York–LaGuardia 2C
Delta Connection
operated by Endeavor Air
Baltimore, Boston, Cincinnati, Columbus (OH), Detroit, Hartford, Memphis, New York–JFK, New York–LaGuardia, Orlando, Philadelphia 2C
Delta Connection
operated by ExpressJet
Boston, Cincinnati, Detroit, Hartford, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Nassau, New York–LaGuardia, Tampa 2C
Delta Connection
operated by GoJet Airlines
Boston, Detroit, Fort Lauderdale, New York–LaGuardia, Philadelphia 2C
Delta Connection
operated by SkyWest Airlines
Minneapolis/St. Paul 2C
Frontier Airlines Trenton (NJ) 2C
JetBlue Airways Boston, Fort Lauderdale, New York-JFK 2C
Southwest Airlines Baltimore, Chicago–Midway, Denver, Houston–Hobby, Las Vegas, Nashville, Orlando, St. Louis, Tampa
Seasonal: Phoenix
1A
United Airlines Chicago–O'Hare, San Francisco, Washington–Dulles
Seasonal: Houston–Intercontinental
2D
United Express
operated by Chautauqua Airlines
Chicago–O'Hare, Cleveland 2D
United Express
operated by ExpressJet
Chicago–O'Hare, Cleveland, Houston–Intercontinental, Newark, Washington–Dulles 2D
United Express
operated by GoJet Airlines
Chicago–O'Hare, Washington–Dulles 2D
United Express
operated by Mesa Airlines
Chicago–O'Hare, Washington–Dulles 2D
United Express
operated by Shuttle America
Chicago–O'Hare, Houston–Intercontinental, Newark 2D
United Express
operated by SkyWest Airlines
Chicago–O'Hare, Houston–Intercontinental 2D
US Airways Charlotte, Philadelphia 2D
US Airways Express
operated by Air Wisconsin
Philadelphia, Washington–National 2D
US Airways Express
operated by PSA Airlines
Washington–National 2D
US Airways Express
operated by Republic Airlines
Charlotte, Philadelphia 2D
US Airways Express
operated by Trans States Airlines
Pittsburgh 2D
Vacation Express
operated by AeroMexico
Seasonal: Cancún (begins May 18, 2014)[22] 2C

Airport lounges[编辑]

The following Airport lounge is located in Terminal 1:

  • The Club at RDU operated by RDU Airport Authority (After security, across from Gate A21)

The following Airport lounges are located in Terminal 2:

Cargo terminal[编辑]

RDU's North Cargo Terminal

The airport incorporates two cargo areas, North Cargo and South Cargo. The North Cargo terminal area is used by cargo airlines. The largest cargo operators are FedEx and UPS. The South Cargo terminal area is used by the following commercial airlines for cargo operations:

航空公司 直飞航点
Bankair Charlotte
Business Airfreight New Bern
FedEx Express Indianapolis, Memphis
FedEx Feeder operated by Mountain Air Cargo Greensboro, Manteo/Dare County
UPS Airlines Columbia (SC), Louisville, Ontario (CA), Philadelphia, Roanoke
UPS Airlines operated by Martinaire Edenton, Manteo/Dare County, New Bern, Jacksonville (NC), Wilmington (NC)

Passenger statistics[编辑]

Since September 11, 2001, passenger traffic at RDU has rebounded to near pre-9/11 levels:

1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s
  • 1985 = 2.7 million
  • 1986 = 3.1 million
  • 1987 = 4.8 million
  • 1988 = 7.3 million
  • 1989 = 8.5 million
  • 1990 = 9.2 million
  • 1991 = 9.3 million
  • 1992 = 9.9 million
  • 1993 = 9.6 million
  • 1994 = 8.9 million
  • 1995 = 5.9 million
  • 1996 = 6.4 million
  • 1997 = 6.7 million
  • 1998 = 7.2 million
  • 1999 = 8.9 million
  • 2000 = 10.4 million
  • 2001 = 9.5 million
  • 2002 = 8.2 million
  • 2003 = 7.9 million
  • 2004 = 8.6 million
  • 2005 = 9.3 million
  • 2006 = 9.4 million
  • 2007 = 10.0 million
  • 2008 = 9.7 million
  • 2009 = 8.9 million
  • 2010 = 9.1 million
  • 2011 = 9.1 million
  • 2012 = 9.2 million
  • 2013 = 9.1 million
  • -
  • -
  • -
  • -
  • -
  • -

Top destinations[编辑]

Busiest Domestic Routes from RDU (May 2012 – April 2013)[23]
Rank City Passengers Carriers
1 Atlanta, GA 666,000 AirTran, Delta
2 Charlotte, NC 370,000 US Airways
3 Philadelphia, PA 262,000 Southwest, US Airways
4 New York, NY (LGA) 238,000 American, Delta
5 Chicago, IL (ORD) 238,000 American, United
6 Baltimore, MD 229,000 Delta, Southwest
7 Dallas/Fort Worth, TX 210,000 American
8 Boston, MA 203,000 Delta, JetBlue
9 New York, NY (JFK) 174,000 American, Delta, JetBlue
10 Miami, FL 137,000 American

Airport facilities[编辑]

The airport has implemented the most ambitious expansion in its history, begun in 2006 and completed in January 2011. The airport has two terminals: an older Terminal 1, and a new Terminal 2. The two terminals do not have an airside connection. Passengers moving between the terminals may ride a shuttle bus, or take the moving walkway through the covered parking decks between the terminals.

Terminal 1[编辑]

Southwest Airlines aircraft parked at the north end of Terminal 1.

The first terminal facility at RDU opened in 1955. Expanded in 1972 and again in 1976,[24] the building was named Terminal B in 1982 when then-new Terminal A opened. The two terminals were connected by a landside interior walkway. Terminal B was closed in 1989. In 1994, Terminal B lost its identity when it was renovated into an extension of Terminal A; an airside walkway was added to link all gates. Most recently, in 2001 the south end of Terminal A was extended to include five temporary gates; these gates were closed in 2009, as the airlines using them moved to other gates.

Terminal A was renamed Terminal 1 on October 26, 2008 to bring RDU in line with terminal naming conventions and to end years of confusion.

After years of propoals,[25][26] the 1981 part of Terminal 1 was closed in 2012 for a complete reconstruction. When the project is complete in early 2014, Southwest and AirTran will move into the rebuilt building.[27] The older parts of Terminal 1 will then be demolished.[28]

Terminal 2[编辑]

New gates at Terminal 2 (Concourse C) that are now being used by American Eagle, US Airways, US Airways Express United/United Express, Air Canada Jazz, and Delta Connection.

Terminal 2 occupies the site of the former Terminal C, built between 1985 and 1987 for the American Airlines hub. In planning the terminal, American assumed that only around 20% of passengers would originate or terminate their trips in Raleigh–Durham; rather, Terminal C was optimized for the exchange of passengers between connecting flights, with a relatively small check-in and baggage claim area. In reality, connecting passengers only accounted for around two-thirds of the terminal's passengers. After the American and Midway hubs closed, the airport faced a decision about the future of Terminal C and how to eliminate the inconveniences it imposed on local passengers.[7]

In December 2003, the Airport Authority announced plans to expand and renovate the originally 300,000-square-foot (28,000 m²) building, transforming it into a new 900,000 ft² (84,000 m²) facility. In January 2006, however, the airport decided instead to replace the building entirely.

Terminal 2 was designed by Fentress Architects under a philosophy of contextual regionalism, related to Critical regionalism. The terminal, invoking the flowing hills and culture of North Carolina's Piedmont region,[29] consisted of two phases of construction. The first, larger Phase 1 opened on October 26, 2008 while Phase 2 opened on January 23, 2011 in time for the 2011 NHL All Star Game.[14] Terminal 2 has 36 gates; three configured for international flights. All gates feature adjustable jetbridges that can accommodate aircraft from regional jets to Boeing 747s. The federal inspection area has 16 stations.

FBOs[编辑]

RDU has two, full service, FBOs on the airfield:

Both FBOs Offer:

  • 24 Hour Fuel Services
  • Heated Hangars
  • Internet Cafe
  • Maintenance Services
  • Sleep Rooms
  • Catering
  • Rental Cars
  • US Customs
  • Complimentary Coffee
  • Conference Room
  • Crew Showers
  • Hotel/Dinner Reservations
  • Taxi/Limousine Services
  • Flight Training On Site
  • Tie-Downs

General Aviation Terminal[编辑]

Planes parked at the RDU general aviation terminal.
RDU control tower and parking lot.

RDU's General Aviation Terminal serves as:

  • Terminal for charter flights (sports, military and leisure)
  • Pilot's resource center
  • Private-event facility
  • Office for several local aviation-related companies
  • Cross-Winds Cafe
  • Indoor/Outdoor observation deck, overlooking runway 5R/23L
  • Raleigh–Wake squadron of the North Carolina wing of the Civil Air Patrol Meeting Location
  • Rental Car Facility (military personnel and charter flight passengers)

Runways[编辑]

RDU has three runways. Two parallel runways are designated 5L/23R and 5R/23L, and a cross-wind runway designated 14/32. Both parallel runways have been equipped with LED lights.

  • Runway 5L/23R: 10,000英尺(3,000米) x 150 feet (concrete)
  • Runway 5R/23L: 7,500英尺(2,300米) x 150 feet (asphalt)
  • Runway 14/32: 3,550英尺(1,080米) x 100 feet (asphalt)

Prior to September 11, 2001, The RDU Airport Authority and Federal Aviation Administration planned a fourth runway at the airport, but with the demise of the Midway Airlines hub and the airline industry downturn following 9/11 terrorist attacks, this plan was placed on hold. During the period between May 27, 2008 and June 24, 2008, and between May 19, 2010 and June 17, 2010, runway 5R/23L was closed for renovation.[30]

Parking[编辑]

In addition to standard hourly and daily parking garages, RDU operates four park-and-ride lots served by shuttle bus.

  • Lot 1 is a "cell-phone waiting" lot
  • Lots 2 and 5 are used primarily for seasonal overflow and holiday traffic.
  • Lots 3 and 4 are traditional park-and-ride facilities.

There are, currently, a total of 11,021 parking spaces available to passengers[31]

Military[编辑]

Observation areas[编辑]

A model of RDU runways for children at the outdoor observation deck.

RDU maintains two public observation decks.

  • One deck overlooks runway 5L/23R near the air traffic control tower and park-and-ride lot 2. It has a playground with a simplistic model of RDU's runways for kids and air traffic communications are broadcast via a loudspeaker for the curious public.
  • The second deck is located at the General Aviation Terminal. It includes a cafe called "CrossWinds Cafe". This observation deck allows for both inside and outside viewing.

Ground transportation[编辑]

Public transit[编辑]

Public transportation to and from RDU is provided by Triangle Transit, which offers scheduled, fixed-route regional and commuter bus service between the airport, Amtrak, and the principal cities of Raleigh, Durham and town of Chapel Hill (where TTA connects with the respective local urban transit systems), as well as to and from Research Triangle Park and several of the region's larger suburban communities.

  • TTA Route 100 [Downtown Raleigh – RDU – Regional Transit Center]

For hire[编辑]

  • Taxicab service at RDU is operated by RDU Taxi Inc., with a contract extension that runs through December 31, 2014.
  • Shuttle services: As in most regions, numerous hotels throughout the area offer guest shuttles to and from the airport. Service varies by location, however most are available from approximately 6 a.m. daily through the final arrival/departure of the evening.
  • Major rental car providers operate from the airport.

Incidents and accidents[编辑]

  • On December 13, 1994, American Eagle Flight 3379 operated by AMR's regional airline Flagship Airlines,[34] a Jetstream 31 was on a regularly scheduled service of Raleigh–Greensboro-Raleigh when it crashed into a wooded area about 4英里(6.4公里) SW of the airport, in the vicinity of Morrisville, NC. Of the 20 onboard (18 passengers and 2 crewmembers) 15 were killed while the 5 survivors received serious injuries. The probable cause of the crash was the pilot not following proper procedure when it came to an engine failure situation.[35]
  • On February 19, 1988, AVAir Flight 3378, a Fairchild Swearingen Metroliner was on a regularly scheduled flight between Raleigh and Richmond when it crashed into a reservoir about a mile from the airport, where it had departed in the vicinity of Cary, North Carolina: The aircraft departed during low ceiling, low visibility, and night conditions. Analysis of radar data indicated the aircraft was in a 45 degree descending turn. Both crew members and all 10 passengers were killed. It was revealed during the investigation that the pilot had complained of illness but decided to continue the flight.

See also[编辑]

References[编辑]

Template:AFHRA

  1. ^ http://rdu.com/authority/stats.html
  2. ^ Baskas, Harriet. Stuck at the Airport: Raleigh–Durham – Haven for Bibliophiles at RDU. Expedia.com. October 11, 2004 [September 22, 2008]. 
  3. ^ 1978 timetable
  4. ^ 1976 timetable
  5. ^ 1972 timetable
  6. ^ 1974 timetable
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 Infanger, John F. The RDU Experience: Phase 2 Expansion Culminates a Decade of Defining the Needs, the Costs. Airport Business. May 11, 2010 [July 25, 2013]. 
  8. ^ Belden, Tom. American Begins Service To New Hub. Philadelphia Inquirer. 4 August 1987 [9 December 2013]. 
  9. ^ Future of American's N. C. Hub Is Uncertain. Star-News (Wilmington, NC). November 18, 1991: (2B) [July 25, 2013]. 
  10. ^ Deak, Leslie. American Airlines to eliminate RDU hub. Duke Chronicle. 26 January 1995 [9 December 2013]. 
  11. ^ Raleigh-Durham, San Jose and Portland Airports: Colourful Pasts and Hope for the Future. Centre for Aviation. March 16, 2010 [July 25, 2013]. 
  12. ^ 1995 timetable
  13. ^ Fins, Antonio. A Tale Of 2 Cities ... And The Loss Of An Airline Hub. Sun-Sentinel. 16 March 1997 [9 December 2013]. 
  14. ^ 14.0 14.1 http://rdu.com/news/2010/release_052010.htm
  15. ^ http://rdu.com/news/2010/release_040110.htm
  16. ^ http://www.swamedia.com/channels/By-Date/pages/1998-to-2000
  17. ^ http://rdu.com/news/2010/release_051010.htm
  18. ^ http://www.rdu.com/Landing/annualreport/2009/rdu-09yir.pdf
  19. ^ http://rdu.com/news/2010/release_050310.htm
  20. ^ http://rdu.com/news/2010/release_061010.htm
  21. ^ http://www.rduaa.com/feeds/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=306:07-14-11-vision-airlines-announces-nonstop-service-between-rdu-and-grand-bahama-island&catid=13:2011&Itemid=1
  22. ^ 22.0 22.1 http://www.rdu.com/airlineflightinfo/spotlight-vegas.html
  23. ^ http://www.transtats.bts.gov/airports.asp?pn=1&Airport=RDU&Airport_Name=Raleigh/Durham,%20NC:%20Raleigh%20Durham&carrier=FACTS
  24. ^ RDU Terminal 1 History. 
  25. ^ Weak economy could delay projects at RDU. WRAL. November 20, 2008. 
  26. ^ RDU could shutter terminal. WRAL. January 30, 2009. 
  27. ^ Terminal 1 Modernization Project. 
  28. ^ Siceloff, Bruce. Airlines to Be in Transit at RDU. The News & Observer (Raleigh). November 19, 2010 [November 19, 2010]. 
  29. ^ http://rdu.com/terminal2/aboutproject/architecture.htm
  30. ^ RDU Continues Runway Rehabilitation Project, 新聞稿. Raleigh/Durham Airport Authority. July 1, 2008 [July 1, 2008]. 
  31. ^ Fast Facts. Raleigh/Durham Airport Authority. [April 6, 2008]. 
  32. ^ 1–130th Aviation Battalion. GlobalSecurity.org. [September 26, 2009]. 
  33. ^ About the NC National Guard. North Carolina National Guard. [September 26, 2009]. 
  34. ^ American Eagle Flight 3379 Information
  35. ^ American Eagle Flight 3379 NTSB Brief Report

External links[编辑]