藜麥

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藜麥
藜麥
藜麥
科學分類
界: 植物界 Plantae
(未分级) Angiosperms
(未分级) Eudicots
(未分级) Core eudicots
目: 石竹目 Caryophyllales
科: 苋科 Amaranthaceae
亞科: 藜亚科 Chenopodioideae
屬: 藜属 Chenopodium
種: 藜麥 C. quinoa
二名法
Chenopodium quinoa
Willd.

藜麥學名Chenopodium quinoaquinoa读作/ˈknwɑː//kɨˈn.ə/),又稱印地安麥奎藜灰米小小米,是一種南美洲高地特有的穀類植物,其种子可以吃。糧食穀物大多屬於禾本科,但是藜麥很獨特屬於藜亚科,所以被称作“假穀物”。藜麥跟菠菜是近亲。

Quinoa這個字有母親的意思,因為古印加人把藜麥稱作五穀之母[來源請求]。藜麥原产於安地斯山脈,是南美洲最早的作物之一,約在西元前3000-5000年就發現有種植這種作物的遺蹟。藜麥喜歡高海拔,在海拔4000米的高山上,藜麥能長的非常高而且強壯。目前北美洲的美國農業公司正在利用基因科技研發低海拔也能生長的藜麥,将對南美洲的農業產生負面影響[來源請求],所以現時南美洲農業機構大力推行有機品種,以對抗將來可能面對的生態危機,保護藜麥這個古老的物種。

概述[编辑]

藜麥種子

藜麥(Quinoa 是克丘亞語名稱的西班牙語拼音字“kinwa”或“Qin-wah” )起源於安第斯山脈的區域 - 現今的厄瓜多爾玻利維亞哥倫比亞秘魯。在3000至4000年前, 它被成功地種植供人食用,然而考古證據顯示, 在5200到7000年前, 非人工種植的藜麥已被用於畜牧。[1]

藜麥是南美洲在玉米還沒有普及前的重要作物,在古印第安文明中占重要地位。在農業生產力低下的古代,由於藜麥營養豐富,能有效解決人類的溫飽和社會發展,也間接促進了印第安文明的興盛。在古時候的民間,藜麥一直和印第安神秘的精神信仰密不可分,殖民地時代,西班牙人認為這是低下的食物,被禁止種植,直到1980年才重新被科學家在山區發現,現在藜麥在歐美的地位相當高,被視為有機穀類之王,還被稱作營養黃金、超級穀物、未來食品[來源請求]

藜麥的主產地在南美洲的秘魯、玻利維亞、厄瓜多爾,每年大約98%藜麥用於供應歐美國家。科學家們[谁?]認為,食用藜麥可以減少對其它食物包括肉類的索取,得到的營養卻是相同的,還對體質有健康修復作用,種植藜麥可以減少其它農業的投入,尤其是節約了耕作土地,對保護環境減少排放有益。藜麥的特殊全營養特性,促使很多國家都把藜麥做為糧食安全的戰略物種去研究本土化種植[來源請求]

與常見的穀物相比,藜麥的營養成分是非常的好。藜麥種子含有必需的氨基酸離氨基酸和多量的鈣,磷,鐵等。[2] 收割後,種子需要處理以去除含有苦味的皂素的外層。藜麥種子的一般烹飪的方式和米相同, 而且可以被使用在廣泛的菜餚中。藜麥葉子也是可以吃的葉菜,像莧菜,但藜麥植物的商業供應有限。

生態習性[编辑]

Quinoa plant

Quinoa is a dicotyledonous, annual plant usually about 1–2 m high. It has broad, generally pubescent, powdery, smooth (rarely) to lobed leaves normally arranged alternately. The woody central stem is either branched or unbranched depending on the variety and may be green, red or purple. The panicles arise either from the top of the plant or from axils on the stem. The panicles have a central axis from which a secondary axis emerges either with flowers (amaranthiform), or bearing a tertiary axis carrying the flowers (glomeruliform).[3] The green hypogynous flowers have a simple perianth and are generally bisexual and self-fertilizing.[3][4] The fruits are about 2 mm in diameter and of various colours — from white to red or black depending on the cultivar.[2]

分佈[编辑]

Chenopodium quinoa (and a related species from Mexico, Chenopodium nuttalliae) is believed to have been domesticated in the Peruvian Andes from wild populations of Chenopodium quinoa.[5] There are non-cultivated quinoa plants (Chenopodium quinoa var. melanospermum) which grow in the same area where it is cultivated; it is presumed that those are related to quinoa's wild predecessors, but they could instead be descendants of cultivated plants.[6]

皂苷[编辑]

Red quinoa, cooked.

Quinoa in its natural state has a coating of bitter-tasting saponins, making it unpalatable. Most quinoa sold commercially in North America has been processed to remove this coating.[7] This bitterness has beneficial effects during cultivation, as the plant is unpopular with birds and therefore requires minimal protection.[8] Attempts to lower the saponin content of quinoa through selective breeding to produce sweeter, more palatable varieties have proven difficult due to cross pollination contamination.[9]

The toxicity category rating of quinoa saponins treats them as mild eye and respiratory irritants and as a low gastrointestinal irritant.[10] The saponin is a toxic glycoside, a main contributor to its hemolytic effects when combined directly with blood cells. In South America, Quinoa saponin has many uses outside of consumption, which includes detergent for clothing and washing, and as an antiseptic for skin injuries.[11] High levels of oxalic acid in the leaves and stems are found in all species of the Chenopodium genus, but are also present in the related plant families of Polygonaceae and Amaranthaceae.[12] The risks associated with quinoa are minimal, provided it is properly prepared and leaves are not eaten to excess.

歷史文化[编辑]

早期歷史[编辑]

Quinoa was first domesticated by the Andean peoples around 3000 years ago.[13] Quinoa has been an important staple in the Andean cultures where the plant is indigenous but relatively obscure in the rest of the world.[14] The Incas, who held the crop to be sacred,[15] referred to quinoa as chisaya mama or "mother of all grains", and it was the Inca emperor who would traditionally sow the first seeds of the season using "golden implements".[15] During the Spanish conquest of South America, the Spanish colonists scorned quinoa as "food for Indians",[16] and even actively suppressed its cultivation, due to its status within indigenous religious ceremonies.[17] In fact, the conquistadores forbade quinoa cultivation for a time[18] and the Incas were forced to grow wheat instead.[19]

現代使用[编辑]

藜麥適合大多數體質人群食用,尤其適合給孕婦做食物,和作為老年人群的保健食品。但是由于未清洗过的藜麦含有皂苷,味苦,所以未清洗过的藜麦不建议两岁以下的婴儿使用[來源請求]。煮食方式就像煮大米一樣。必須要煮熟了才能吃。通常要先用水冲洗去掉苦味,用文火在冷水中煮約20分鐘,然后改上盖子直至充分吸收水分,而且有輕微的味道出來就好。目前藜麥在歐美是有機健康穀類的熱門產品,在北美,美國人吃藜麥通常是四杯水對一杯藜麥[來源請求],再加入其他的五穀雜糧,早上吃的話則會加上蜂蜜、杏仁和莓果。此外,藜麥也很適合搭配略有苦味的蔬菜(如甘藍菜)。在臺灣,和吃臺灣紅藜的方法相同。

World Quinoa Production (thousand metric tons)
country 1961 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2011
秘鲁 秘鲁 22.5 7.3 16.3 6.3 28.2 41.1 41.2
 玻利维亚 9.2 9.7 8.9 16.1 23.8 36.1 38.3
 厄瓜多尔 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.8
Total 32.4 17.7 25.8 23.0 52.6 78.1 80.2
Export price[20] USD/Kg $0.080 $0.492 $0.854 $1.254 $3.029
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) [21]

Quinoa has become increasingly popular in the United States, Europe, China and Japan where the crop is not typically grown, increasing crop value.[22] Between 2006 and early 2013 quinoa crop prices have tripled.[23] In 2011, the average crop value was $3,115 USD per ton with some varieties selling as high as $8,000 per ton.[24] This compares with wheat prices of $9 per bushel (about $340 per ton). Since the 1970s, producers’ associations and cooperatives have worked toward greater producer control of the market.

The popularity of quinoa in non-indigenous regions has raised concerns over food security. Due to continued widespread poverty in regions where quinoa is produced, and because few other crops are compatible with the soil and climate in these regions, it is suggested that the inflated price of quinoa disrupts local access to food supplies.[23] In 2013, The Guardian compared quinoa consumption to Peruvian asparagus, a popular Andean crop criticized for excessive water use,[25] as "feeding our apparently insatiable 365-day-a-year hunger for this luxury vegetable[...]"[23] It is also suggested that as people rise above subsistence level income, they choose higher status Western processed foods.

国际藜麦年[编辑]

联合国大会宣布2013年为“国际藜麦年”,对安第斯山区人民通过与自然和睦相处的知识和经验、将藜麦作为今世后代的食物而传承下来的这一古老实践予以承认。其目的就是引起世界对藜麦在提供粮食安全和营养方面所起的作用的注意。

联合国粮食及农业组织为该国际年提供秘书处服务。玻利维亚履行协调委员会主席职务,厄瓜多尔秘鲁智利为副主席,阿根廷法国则负责报告起草。

種植[编辑]

Quinoa plant before flowering

氣候[编辑]

Quinoa is highly variable due to a high complexity of different subspecies, varieties and landraces (plants or animals adapted to the environment in which they originated). However, in general it is undemanding and altitude-hardy. It is grown from coastal regions (Chile) to over 4,000 m (13,120 ft) in the Andes near the equator. However, most of the cultivars are grown between 2,500 m and 4,000 m. Depending on the variety, Quinoa's optimal growing conditions are in cool climates with temperatures that range from 25°F/−3°C during the night, to near 95°F/35°C during the day. Some cultivars can also withstand lower temperatures without damage. Light frosts normally do not affect the plants at any stage of development, except during flowering. Mid-summer frosts often occurring in the Andes during flowering lead to sterilization of the pollen. Rainfall conditions are highly variable between the different cultivars, ranging from 300 to 1,000 mm during growing season. Optimal for Quinoa growth is well-distributed rainfall during early growth and development and dry conditions during seed maturation and harvesting.,[3]

播種[编辑]

Quinoa does best in sandy, well-drained soils with a low nutrient content, moderate salinity, and a soil pH of 6 to 8.5.

The seedbed must be well prepared and drained to avoid waterlogging. Normally in the Andes, Quinoa seeds are broadcast over land and raked into the soil. Sometimes it is sown in narrow, shallow soils.

管理[编辑]

Yields are maximised when 150 to 180 lb N/acre is available. The addition of phosphorus does not improve yield. In eastern North America, it is susceptible to a leaf miner that may reduce crop success; this leaf miner also affects the common weed and close relative Chenopodium album, but C. album is much more resistant.

Harvested quinoa seeds

收成[编辑]

Quinoa is usually harvested by hand and rarely by machine, because the extremely variable maturity periods of native Quinoas complicates mechanization. Harvest needs to be precisely timed to avoid high seed losses from shattering, and different panicles on the same plant mature at different times. The seed yield (often around 3 t/ha up to 5 t/ha) is comparable to wheat yields in the Andean areas. Handling involves threshing the seedheads and winnowing the seed to remove the husk. Before storage, the seeds need to be dried in order to avoid germination.[3]

爭議[编辑]

是否符合犹太教教规问题[编辑]

藜麦由于可以替代在逾越节时禁止食用的有叶粮食,日益受到犹太人群体的青睐。但几家对符合犹太教教规的食物进行认证的机构认为它与那些禁止食用的粮食过于相像,并且担心藜麦产品被临近田地的禁止使用的粮食污染,因此拒绝认定藜麦符合犹太教教规。[26]

品種多樣性[编辑]

由於國外消費者喜歡顏色較白外形籽粒較大的藜麥,所以原產地大多種植“real”品種,以討巧國外購買者的愛好,但是还有很多外形一般、營養价值高的優秀品種尚未被世界充分認識。同時,連年的種植,使原產地原本貧瘠的土地肥力下降很快,影響到藜麥的內在品質。這些都是原產地亟待解決的問題。

全球化經濟[编辑]

藜麥本是南美洲價格低廉的食品,在先進國家提倡有機養生食品以及商業炒作下,藜麥在原產地的價格上揚、大量外銷。雖然這讓農人的收入提升,但原產地的窮人從此就買不起藜麥。

營養價值[编辑]

Quinoa, uncooked
每 100 g (3.5 oz) 食物营养值
熱量 1540 kJ (370 kcal)
碳水化合物 64 g
淀粉 52 g
膳食纖維 7 g
脂肪 6 g
多元不飽和脂肪 3.3 g
蛋白质 14 g
色氨酸 0.167 g
蘇氨酸 0.421 g
異亮氨酸 0.504 g
亮氨酸 0.840 g
赖氨酸 0.766 g
蛋氨酸 0.309 g
胱氨酸 0.203 g
苯丙氨酸 0.593 g
酪氨酸 0.267 g
缬氨酸 0.594 g
精氨酸 1.091 g
組氨酸 0.407 g
丙氨酸 0.588 g
天冬氨酸 1.134 g
穀氨酸 1.865 g
甘氨酸 0.694 g
脯氨酸 0.773 g
絲氨酸 0.567 g
13 g
硫胺(維生素B1 0.36 mg (28%)
核黄素(維生素B2 0.32 mg (21%)
吡哆醇(維生素B6 0.5 mg (38%)
叶酸(維生素B9 184 μg (46%)
36 mg (4%)
4.6 mg (37%)
197 mg (53%)
457 mg (65%)
563 mg (12%)
3.1 mg (31%)
參照美國標準的相對百分比
成人日參考攝入量(RDI
來源:(英文)美国农业部营养数据库

Quinoa was important to the diet of pre-Columbian Andean civilizations.[14] Today, people appreciate quinoa for its nutritional value. Quinoa has been called a superfood.[13] Protein content is very high for a cereal/pseudo-cereal (14% by mass), yet not as high as most beans and legumes. Quinoa's protein content per 100 calories is higher than brown rice, potatoes, barley and millet, but is less than wild rice and oats.[27] Nutritional evaluations of quinoa indicate that it is a source of complete protein.[28][29][30] Furthermore, it is a good source of dietary fiber and phosphorus and is high in magnesium and iron. Quinoa is also a source of calcium, and thus is useful for vegans and those who are lactose intolerant.[31] Quinoa is gluten-free and considered easy to digest. Because of all these characteristics, quinoa is being considered a possible crop in NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System for long-duration human occupied spaceflights.[32]

Quinoa may be germinated in its raw form to boost its nutritional value. Germination activates its natural enzymes and multiplies its vitamin content.[33] In fact, quinoa has a notably short germination period: Only 2–4 hours resting in a glass of clean water is enough to make it sprout and release gases, as opposed to, e.g., 12 hours with wheat.[34] This process, besides its nutritional enhancements, softens the seeds, making them suitable to be added to salads and other cold foods.


References[编辑]

  1. ^ Kolata, Alan L. Quinoa. Quinoa: Production, Consumption and Social Value in Historical Context. Department of Anthropology, The University of Chicago. 2009. 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 J. G. Vaughn & C. A. Geissler. The new Oxford book of food plants. Oxford University Press. 2009. 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Research Coun National Research Council. The Lost Crops of the Incas: Little-Known Plants of the Andes with Promise for Worldwide Cultivation. 2005. 
  4. ^ Reinhard Lieberei, Christoph Reissdorff & Wolfgang Franke. Nutzpflanzenkunde. Georg Thieme Verlag. 2007. 
  5. ^ Barbara Pickersgill. Domestication of Plants in the Americas: Insights from Mendelian and Molecular Genetics. Annals of Botany. August 31, 2007, 100 (5): 925–40. doi:10.1093/aob/mcm193. PMC 2759216. PMID 17766847. 
  6. ^ Charles B. Heiser Jr. and David C. Nelson. On the Origin of the Cultivated Chenopods (Chenopodium). Genetics. 1974.September, 78 (1): 503–5. PMC 1213209. PMID 4442716. 
  7. ^ How To Cook Quinoa, Easy Quinoa Recipe. Savvy Vegetarian. [9 June 2012]. 
  8. ^ Quinoa. Alternative Field Crops Manual. University of Wisconsin Extension and University of Minnesota. January 20, 2000. 
  9. ^ Masterbroek, H.D.; Limburg, H., Gilles, T. and Marvin, H. J. Occurrence of sapogenins in leaves and seeds of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd).. New York, NY.: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2000: 152–156. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(20000101)80:1<152::AID-JSFA503>3.0.CO;2-P. 
  10. ^ Biopesticides Registration Action Document: Saponins of Chenopodium quinoa. EPA. 2009. 
  11. ^ Quinoa. Issues in New Crops and New Uses Proceedings of the sixth National Symposium Creating Markets for Economic Development of New Crops and New Uses, Duane L. Johnson and Sarah M. Ward, 1993. Quinoa. p. 219–221. In: J. Janick and J.E. Simon (eds.), New crops. Wiley, New York. the Center for New Crops & Plant Products, Purdue University. 1993 [April 11, 1997]. 
  12. ^ Siener, Roswitha; Ruth Honow, Ana Seidler, Susanne Voss, Albrecht Hesse. Oxalate contents of species of the Polygonaceae, Amaranthaceae and Chenopodiaceae families. Food Chemistry, Volume 98 Issue 2. 2006: 220–224. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.05.059.. ISSN 0308-8146. 
  13. ^ 13.0 13.1 Keppel, Stephen. The Quinoa Boom Is a Lesson in the Global Economy. ABC Univision. March 4, 2012 [16 March 2013]. 
  14. ^ 14.0 14.1 Keen, Benjamin; Keith Haynes. A History of Latin America. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. 2008. 32. ISBN 978-0618783182. 
  15. ^ 15.0 15.1 Popenoe, Hugh. Lost crops of the Incas: little-known plants of the Andes with promise for worldwide cultivation. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 1989. 149. ISBN 0-309-04264-X. 
  16. ^ Gade, Daniel W. Nature and culture in the Andes. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. 1999. 206. ISBN 0-299-16124-2. 
  17. ^ Bailey, Garrick Alan; Peoples, James. Humanity: an introduction to cultural anthropology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. 2009. 120. ISBN 0-495-50874-8. 
  18. ^ Bernice Kagan; Meredith McCarty. Fresh from a vegetarian kitchen. New York: St. Martin's Press. 1995. 56. ISBN 0-312-11795-7. 
  19. ^ Andy Turnbull. We need to talk: about the future of Canada. Toronto: Red Ear Pub. 2005. 23. ISBN 0-9681258-5-9. 
  20. ^ calculated from Export volume and value of FAOSTAT
  21. ^ FAOSTAT. FAO Statistics. [2013-01-26]. 
  22. ^ Quinoa brings riches to the Andes. The Guardian. [17 Jan 2013]. 
  23. ^ 23.0 23.1 23.2 Can vegans stomach the unpalatable truth about quinoa?. The Guardian. [17 Jan 2013]. 
  24. ^ IQuinoa brings riches to the Andes. The Guardian. [17 Jan 2013]. 
  25. ^ Despite Economic Gains, Peru's Asparagus Boom Threatening Water Table. PRI's The World. 2011-01-23 [2013-01-17]. 
  26. ^ http://life.nationalpost.com/2013/03/25/jews-divided-by-great-passover-debate-is-quinoa-kosher/
  27. ^ Wild Rice: The Protein-Rich Grain that Almost Nobody Knows About! - Yahoo! Voices - voices.yahoo.com. [21 May 2013]. 
  28. ^ http://oardc.osu.edu/6060/Chow-Line-Mother-grain-quinoa-a-complete-protein-%28for-10/5/08%29.htm. [21 May 2013]. 
  29. ^ Nutrition Facts and Analysis of Quinoa, Cooked. 
  30. ^ Quinoa. [21 May 2013]. 
  31. ^ Ray, C. Claiborne. Calcium and Quinoa. The New York Times. 29 December 1998 [9 June 2012]. 
  32. ^ Greg Schlick and David L. Bubenheim. Quinoa: An Emerging "New" Crop with Potential for CELSS (PDF). NASA Technical Paper 3422. NASA. 1993.November. 
  33. ^ Deep Nutrition: Why Your Genes Need Traditional Foods, Catherine Shanahan, MD, Luke Shanahan (2008) pp. 148–151
  34. ^ http://www.researchgate.net/publication/222426069_Anthocyanins_total_polyphenols_and_antioxidant_activity_in_amaranth_and_quinoa_seeds_and_sprouts_during_their_growth/file/d912f50ec795b3d96d.pdf. [21 May 2013]. 

Further reading[编辑]

  • Pulvento C., M. Riccardi, A. Lavini, R. d’Andria, & R. Ragab (2013). SALTMED Model to Simulate Yield and Dry Matter for Quinoa Crop and Soil Moisture Content Under Different Irrigation Strategies in South Italy.. Irrigation and drainage. doi:10.1002/ird.1727. 
  • Cocozza C., C. Pulvento, A. Lavini, M.Riccardi, R. d’Andria & R. Tognetti (2012). Effects of increasing salinity stress and decreasing water availability on ecophysiological traits of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).. Journal of agronomy and crop science. doi:10.1111/jac.12012. 
  • Pulvento C, Riccardi M, Lavini A, d'Andria R, Iafelice G, Marconi E. Field Trial Evaluation of Two Chenopodium quinoa Genotypes Grown Under Rain-Fed Conditions in a Typical Mediterranean Environment in South Italy. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. 2010, 196 (6): 407–411. doi:10.1111/j.1439-037X.2010.00431.x. 
  • Pulvento, C., Riccardi, M., Lavini, A., Iafelice, G., Marconi, E. and d’Andria, R. Yield and Quality Characteristics of Quinoa Grown in Open Field Under Different Saline and Non-Saline Irrigation Regimes. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. 2012, 198 (4): 254–263. doi:10.1111/j.1439-037X.2012.00509.x. 
  • Gómez-Caravaca, G. Iafelice, A. Lavini, C. Pulvento, M.Caboni, E.Marconi. Phenolic Compounds and Saponins in Quinoa Samples (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Grown under Different Saline and Non saline Irrigation Regimens. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2012, 60 (18): 4620–4627. doi:10.1021/jf3002125. PMID 22512450. 
  • Romero, Simon; Shahriari, Sara. Quinoa’s Global Success Creates Quandary at Home. The New York Times. March 19, 2011 [July 22, 2012]. 
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