西班牙裔

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西班牙裔是美洲地区的一个特定语言族群,他们拥有来自于拉丁美洲或者伊比利亚半岛的血统。[1][2][3]广义来说,西班牙裔包含所有在美洲居住并且自定义为西班牙裔或者拉丁裔的一类人。[4][5][6][7][8][9] 西班牙裔人的祖先分布广泛,族群多样性非常强。因此西班牙裔并不是一个种族,而更像一类族群

西班牙裔和拉丁裔的区别[编辑]

西班牙裔和拉丁裔经常会被人们混用。事实上,西班牙裔的定义相比而言较为狭义,指的是说西班牙语的人或者祖籍为西班牙的人;而拉丁裔的则较为广义,指的是拥有拉丁美洲祖先的人们(因此还包括巴西人,尽管大部分巴西人说葡萄牙语[10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21]

因此,“西班牙裔=西班牙人+说西班牙语拉丁美洲人-葡萄牙人-巴西人”,而”拉丁裔=祖籍为拉丁美洲的人“。葡萄牙人和其他说葡萄牙语且非拉丁美洲人则既不是西班牙裔也不是拉丁裔。

族群分布[编辑]

西班牙裔或者拉丁裔占据了美国16.9%的人口,即5300万人。[22]由此而成为继墨西哥,超过阿根廷哥伦比亚西班牙的第二大西班牙社群。[23]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ Luis Fraga; John A. Garcia. Latino Lives in America: Making It Home. Temple University Press. 2010. 145. ISBN 978-1-4399-0050-5. 
  2. ^ Nancy L. Fisher. Cultural and Ethnic Diversity: A Guide for Genetics Professionals. Johns Hopkins University Press. 1996. 19. ISBN 978-0-8018-5346-3. 
  3. ^ Robert H. Holden; Rina Villars. Contemporary Latin America: 1970 to the Present. John Wiley & Sons. 2012. 18. ISBN 978-1-118-27487-3. 
  4. ^ 49 CFR Part 26. [2012-10-22]. "'Hispanic Americans,' which includes persons of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Central or South American, or other Spanish or Portuguese culture or origin, regardless of race;" 
  5. ^ US Small Business Administration 8(a) Program Standard Operating Procedure. [2012-10-22]. "SBA has defined 'Hispanic American' as an individual whose ancestry and culture are rooted in South America, Central America, Mexico, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, or the Iberian Peninsula, including Spain and Portugal." 
  6. ^ Humes, Karen R.; Jones, Nicholas A.; Ramirez, Roberto R. Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010 (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. [2011-03-28]. ""Hispanic or Latino" refers to a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish or Portuguese culture or origin regardless of race." 
  7. ^ American FactFinder Help: Hispanic or Latino origin. United States Census Bureau. [2008-10-05]. "For Census 2000, American Community Survey: People who identify with the terms "Hispanic" or "Latino" are those who classify themselves in one of the specific Hispanic or Latino categories listed on the Census 2000 or ACS questionnaire - "Mexican," "Puerto Rican," or "Cuban" - as well as those who indicate that they are "other Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino." Origin can be viewed as the heritage, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the person's parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States. People who identify their origin as Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino may be of any "race".
    1990 Census of Population and Housing: A self-designated classification for people whose origins are from Spain, the Spanish speaking countries of Central or South America, the Caribbean, or those identifying themselves generally as Spanish, Spanish-American, etc. Origin can be viewed as ancestry, nationality, or country of birth of the person or person's parents or ancestors prior to their arrival in the United States."
     
  8. ^ Office of Management and Budget. Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity. Federal Register Notice October 30, 1997. [2012-06-01]. 
  9. ^ B03001. Hispanic or Latino origin by specific origin. 2009 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. [2010-10-17]. 
  10. ^ Carlos Dejud. The Relationship Among Ethnic Identity, Psychological Well-being, Academic Achievement, and Intergroup Competence of School-age Hispanic/Latino Youth. ProQuest. 2007. 21. ISBN 978-0-549-29853-3. 
  11. ^ Timothy Ready. Latino Immigrant Youth: Passages from Adolescence to Adulthood. Taylor & Francis. 1991. 14. ISBN 978-0-8153-0057-1. 
  12. ^ "Latino: People with roots in the Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking Americas. This broader term, mostly used in the United States, is sometimes used as a replacement for Hispanic. http://csuchico-dspace.calstate.edu/handle/10211.4/222
  13. ^ http://americanhistory.si.edu/collections/mexicanamerica/glossary.html (Defining "Hispanic" as meaning those with Spanish speaking roots in the Americas and "Latino" as meaning those with both Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking roots in Latin America.)
  14. ^ "'Latino' . . . 'is more inclusive and descriptive'" than Hispanic. "'Latino' is short for 'latinoamericano,' which of course means Latin American in Spanish. Like its English counterpart, the term 'latinoamericano' strictly refers to the people who come from the territory in the Americas colonized by Latin nations, such as Portugal, Spain, and France, whose languages are derived from Latin. People from Brazil, Mexico, and even Haiti are thus all 'latinoamericanos.' Individuals who are decendants of the former British or Dutch colonies are excluded. . . . Finally, 'hispanoamericanos' are persons from the former colonies of Spain in the 'New World.' The expression 'Hispanic' probably derives from 'hispanoamericanos.'" Angel R. Oquendo, Re-Imagining the Latino/a Race, 12 Harvard BlackLetter L.J. 93, 96 -97 (1995)
  15. ^ "[T]he term 'Latino' . . . is more inclusive and descriptive than the term 'Hispanic.'" Deborah A. Ramirez, Excluded Voices: The Disenfranchisement of Ethnic Groups From Jury Service, 1993 Wis. L. Rev. 761, 806 (1993).
  16. ^ http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0825/is_n3_v62/ai_18771519/.  缺少或|title=为空 (帮助)
  17. ^ Anderson, Kevin. The complexity of race in New Mexico. The Guardian (London). 2008-10-18. 
  18. ^ http://etd.auburn.edu/etd/bitstream/handle/10415/88/VITALE_MICHELE_14.pdf?sequence=1
  19. ^ AP Stylebook Twitter. [2012-04-06]. 
  20. ^ Herald Style Guide. [2012-04-06]. 
  21. ^ Newsroom 101: Recent Changes to AP Style. Newsroom 101. [2012-04-06]. (原始内容存档于April 18, 2012). 
  22. ^ http://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/population/cb12-90.html
  23. ^ http://www.rawstory.com/rs/2013/06/15/u-s-now-has-most-spanish-speakers-outside-mexico/