訊息經濟學

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訊息經濟(The economics of information),又稱資訊經濟學,微观经济学中的分支。由美國經濟學家喬治·斯蒂格勒George Joseph Stigler)在1961年率先提出,他個人認為:產品資訊的內容會對經濟活動及消費者購買決策產生某部份的影響。

我們以最基本的產品價格資訊來看,市場上各家零售商對產品的價格不一,所以消費者為了追求最便宜的價格,會逐一比較各家的價格,以得出一個最低價格,而這個比價的動作我們稱為「搜尋」。消費者搜尋時,勢必會額外付出較多的時間及精力,因此消費者不會無限制的搜尋,而是到消費成本超過所預期獲得的利益(指最低價格的價差)時就會停止下來。當然消費者在進行搜尋的動作時,會付出額外的時間、精力及金錢,當消費者搜尋到一個程度時,我們稱為「邊際成本期望邊際效益」,這時消費者就不再繼續搜尋。搜尋過程的成本支出,對應所得到的資訊,檢測是否符合降低採購風險,提升採購的正確性,這就叫做「效益」,而邊際成本=期望邊際效益則就是成本效益的損益平衡點。

參見[编辑]

參考[编辑]

Bubbles" by Markus K. Brunnermeier Abstract.
"Epistemic game theory: incomplete information" by Aviad Heifetz. Abstract.
"Information aggregation and prices" by James Jordan. Abstract.
"Information cascades," by , Sushil Bikhchandani, David Hirshleifer and Ivo Welch. Abstract.
"Information sharing among firms" by Xavier Vives.Abstract.
"Information technology and the world economy" by Dale W. Jorgenson and Khuong Vu. Abstract.
"Insider trading." by Andrew Metrick. Abstract.
"Learning and information aggregation in networks" by Douglas Gale and Shachar Kariv. Abstract.
"Monetary business cycles (imperfect information)" by Christian Hellwig. Abstract.
"Social networks in labour markets" by Antoni Calvó-Armengol and Yannis M. Ioannides. Abstract.
"Prediction markets" by Justin Wolfers and Eric Zitzewitz.Abstract.
  • Pissarides, C. A. (2001). "Search, Economics of," International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, pp. 13760-13768. Abstract.
  • Shapiro, Carl, and Hal R. Varian (1999). Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy. Harvard University Press. (publisher's excerpts)
  • Spence, Michael A. (1973). "Job Market Signaling," Quarterly Journal of Economics 83(3) , pp. 355-377.
  • Stigler, George J. (1961). “The Economics of Information,” Journal of Political Economy, 69(3), pp. 213-225.
  • Stiglitz, Joseph E. (2000). "The Contributions of the Economics of Information to Twentieth Century Economics," Quarterly Journal of Economics, 115(4) , pp. 1441-1478.[1]
  • Theil, Henri (1967). Econonomics and Information Theory. Amsterdam, North Holland.