語言人類學

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語言人類學linguistic anthropology)是人類學的分支,將語言學研究方法運用於人類學問題上,將符號或特殊語言形式與過程連結到社會文化過程的詮釋。

歷史發展[编辑]

"人類學式的語言學"[编辑]

最早的理論典範原本被稱為語言學(linguistics),雖然當這門學科及相關的研究領域發展成熟之後,稱為 「人類學式的語言學」(anthropological linguistics)。這個領域專門研究這個次學科所獨有的一些主題:對於被視為注定要滅絕的語言所做的語言學記錄(有一些北美原住民語言成為這個次學科學者所關注的焦點),例如:

  • 語法描述,
  • 類型學分類 ,以及
  • 關於語言相對論的未決議題(關連到艾德華·薩丕爾本杰明·沃夫,但實際上由法蘭茲·鮑亞士所發展,在他之前,有一長串歐洲思想家,從VicoHerder威廉·馮·洪堡)。所謂的薩丕爾-沃夫假說可能是個不當的用詞,這是就這個兩位學者的科學取向,有別於科學上的實證論、以假說為取向的模型。無論如何,這個名詞是Harry Hoijer (薩丕爾的學生)所創(Hoijer 1954; see also HIll and Mannheim 1992)。

近年来,我们不学人类学了

"語言人類學"[编辑]

在1960年代,戴爾海姆斯(Dell Hymes)主要負責發起第二種理論典範,將「語言人類學」(linguistic anthropology)這個名稱固定下來,雖然他也創造了「言談民族誌」(ethnography of speaking,或「溝通民族誌」 ethnography of communication)這個術語,來描述他為這個學術領域所設想的架構。這包含運用新的科技發展,包括新形態的錄音設備。

海姆斯也引介了一種新的分析單位。有鑑於在第一種理論典範聚焦於表面上獨特的「語言」(引號表示當代的語言人類學家將「一個語言」的概念視為一種理想建構,從而掩蓋了這個語言內部的複雜性,以及「跨越」所謂的語言界線的複雜性);第二種理論典範的分析單位是「言談事件」(speech event)。(言談事件是一個事件,由發生在這個事件之中的言談所界定的,例如,一場晚宴並不是一個言談事件,而是一個言談情境,在這種情境下,言談可能會發生,也可能不會發生。)有許多學者專注於在這些言談事件中,參與者對他們的語言表現型態所提出的解釋。 [1][2]

海姆斯也開創了語言人類學的一種研究方法,民族詩學(ethnopoetics)。

海姆斯希望將語言人類學更密切連結到人類學這個母學科。語言人類學這個名稱必定強調它的首要身份是與人類學,而「人類學式的語言學」傳達一種感覺,它的首要身份是「語言學」,如今這在大多數的大學是一門獨立學科(而不是在法蘭茲·鮑亞士和薩皮爾的時代)。然而,海姆斯的企圖心卻是事與願違的;語言人類學這個理論典範,事實上標誌著它跟人類學的其他分支學科進一步的疏遠。

透過語言學方法與資料所從事的人類學議題研究[编辑]

在1980年代後期興起的第三種理論典範,並不是繼續追求來自一個讓人類學感到陌生的學科(語言學)的各項議題,語言人類學家有系統地專注於自己母學科人類學所提出的各項議題,但運用了語言學的資料和方法。在這第三種理論典範的熱門研究議題,包括社會身份認同的調查研究、普遍共同具有的意識形態,以及在個人和團體之間的互動中,論述的建構與運用方式。

研究興趣領域[编辑]

當代語言人類學研究延續了上述的三個理論典範。有幾個領域關連到第三種典範,也就是對於人類學議題的研究,這是當代語言人類學家特別專注的領域。

身分認同[编辑]

語言人類學的作品有許多從語言學角度探討社會文化認同的議題。語言人類學家庫利克(Don Kulick)在巴布亞紐幾內亞一個名為迦普恩(Gapun)的村落,依據對許多場景的分析,研究語言與認同的關係。[3]庫利克探討了迦普恩的兒童如何使用兩種語言──傳統語言「塔伊阿普」(Taiap)只在自己村落使用,從而標示了一種根本賦予的(primordially)迦普恩人身分認同。另一種語言則是巴布亞皮欽語(在紐幾內亞盛行的官方語言)。 (語言人類學家使用「標示」(indexical)這個字的意思是指標性。[4]

參閱[编辑]

註釋[编辑]

  1. ^ Bauman, Richard. 1977. Verbal Art as Performance. American Anthropologist 77:290-311.
  2. ^ Hymes, Dell. 1981 [1975] Breakthrough into Performance. In In Vain I Tried to Tell You: Essays in Native American Ethnopoetics. D. Hymes, ed. Pp. 79-141. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  3. ^ Kulick, Don. 1992. Language Shift and Cultural Reproduction: Socialization, Self and Syncretism in a Papua New Guinea Village. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  4. ^ Silverstein, Michael. 1976. Shifters, Linguistic Categories, and Cultural Description. In Meaning in Anthropology. K. Basso and H.A. Selby, eds. Pp. pp. 11-56. Albuquerque: School of American Research, University of New Mexico Press.

引用文獻[编辑]

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  • Horwitz, Tony. 2006. Immigration—and the Curse of the Black Legend (Op-Ed). New York Times. Week in Review, July 9, 2006, p. 13.
  • Hymes, Dell. 1981 [1975] Breakthrough into Performance. In In Vain I Tried to Tell You: Essays in Native American Ethnopoetics. D. Hymes, ed. Pp. 79-141. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • Kroskrity, Paul V. 1998. Arizona Tewa Kiva Speech as a Manifestation of Linguistic Ideology. In Language ideologies: Practice and theory. B.B. Schieffelin, K.A. Woolard, and P. Kroskrity, eds. Pp. 103-122. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Kulick, Don. 1992. Language Shift and Cultural Reproduction: Socialization, Self and Syncretism in a Papua New Guinea Village. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Kulick, Don, and Charles H. Klein. 2003. Scandalous Acts: The Politics of Shame among Brazilian Travesti Prostitutes. In Recognition Struggles and Social Movements: Contested Identities, Agency and Power. B. Hobson, ed. Pp. 215-238. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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  • Schieffelin, Bambi B. 2000. Introducing Kaluli Literacy: A Chronology of Influences. In Regimes of Language. P. Kroskrity, ed. Pp. 293-327. Santa Fe: School of American Research Press.
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  • Schieffelin, Bambi B. 2006. PLENARY ADDRESS: Found in translating: Reflexive language across time and texts in Bosavi, PNG. Twelve Annual Conference on Language, Interaction, and Culture, University of California, Los Angeles, 2006.
  • Silverstein, Michael. 1976. Shifters, Linguistic Categories, and Cultural Description. In Meaning in Anthropology. K. Basso and H.A. Selby, eds. Pp. pp. 11-56. Albuquerque: School of American Research, University of New Mexico Press.
  • Silverstein, Michael. 1979. Language Structure and Linguistic Ideology. In The Elements: A Parasession on Linguistic Units and Levels. R. Cline, W. Hanks, and C. Hofbauer, eds. Pp. pp. 193-247. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.
  • Silverstein, Michael. 1985. Language and the Culture of Gender: At the Intersection of Structure, Usage, and Ideology. In Semiotic Mediation: Sociocultural and Psychological Perspectives. E. Mertz and R. Parmentier, eds. Pp. 219-259. Orlando: Academic Press.
  • Silverstein, Michael. 2004. "Cultural" Concepts and the Language-Culture Nexus. Current Anthropology 45(5):621-652.
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進階閱讀[编辑]

  • Baugh, J. & J. Sherzer. eds. 1984. Language in use. Prentice Hall.
  • Blount, Ben G. ed. 1995. Language, Culture, and Society: A Book of Readings. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland.
  • Bonvillain, Nancy. 1993. Language, culture, and communication: The meaning of messages. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  • Brenneis, Donald; and Ronald K. S. Macaulay. 1996. The matrix of language: Contemporary linguistic anthropology. Boulder: Westview.
  • Duranti, Alessandro. 1997. Linguistic Anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Duranti, Alessandro. ed. 2001. Key terms in language and culture. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
  • Duranti, Alessandro. ed. 2001. Linguistic Anthropology: A Reader. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
  • Duranti, Alessandro. ed. 2004. Companion to Linguistic Anthropology. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
  • Duranti, Alessandro and Charles Goodwin. eds. 1992. Rethinking context: Language as an interactive phenomenon. Studies in the social and cultural foundations of language (No. 11). Cambridge: Cambridge University.
  • Fitch, K. and G. Philipsen. 1995. Ethnography of speaking. In Handbook of pragmatics. J. Verschueren, J.-O. Östman, J. Blommaert, eds. Amsterdam: J. Benjamins.
  • Foley, W. A. 1997. Anthropological linguistics: an introduction. Blackwell.
  • Frank, Francine and Frank Anshen. 1984. Language and the sexes. Albany: State U of NY Press.
  • Giglioli, Pier Paolo. 1972. Language and social context: Selected readings. Middlesex: Penguin Books.
  • Goffman, Erving 1981. Forms of talk. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • Gumperz, John and Dell Hymes. eds. 1964. The ethnography of communication. American Anthropologist, 66 (6, Part 2), 1-186.
  • Gumperz, John J. ed. 1982. Language and social identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Gumperz, John J. and Dell Hymes. eds. 1972. Directions in sociolinguistics: The ethnography of communication. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
  • Hanks, William F. 1996. Language and communicative practices. Critical essays in anthropology (No. 1). Boulder, CO: Westview.
  • Harrison, K. David. 2007. When Languages Die: The Extinction of the World's Languages and the Erosion of Human Knowledge. New York and London: Oxford University Press.
  • Hill, Jane H. 2001. Language, Race, and White Public Space. In Linguistic Anthropology: A Reader. A. Duranti, ed. Pp. 450-464. Malden: Blackwell.
  • Morgan, M. ed. 1994. Language and the social construction of identity. Los Angeles: Center for Afro-American Studies, UCLA.
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  • Schiffman, H. 1996. Linguistic culture and language policy. Routledge.
  • Silverstein, Michael. 1994. Shifters, Linguistic Categories, and Cultural Description. In Language, Culture, and Society: A Book of Readings. B.G. Blount, ed. Pp. 187-221. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland.
  • Tedlock, Dennis and Bruce Mannheim. 1995. The dialogic emergence of culture. Champaign: University of Illinois.
  • Whorf, Benjamin Lee. 1956. Language, thought, and reality: Selected writings. J. B. Carroll, ed. Cambridge: Technology Press of Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

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