野櫻莓

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野櫻莓
Aronia berries
Aronia berries
科學分類
界: Plantae
(未分级) Angiosperms
(未分级) Eudicots
(未分级) Rosids
目: Rosales
科: Rosaceae
亞科: Amygdaloideae[1]
族: Maleae
亞族: Malinae
屬: Aronia
Medik.
Species
野櫻莓果實

野櫻莓学名Aronia melanocarpa英文:Black chokeberry),是薔薇科的一種落葉灌木,原產於北美洲東部濕樹林和沼澤。野櫻莓被栽培為觀賞和植物和經濟作物,果實可以生吃,也能用來製作酒、果醬、糖漿、果汁、茶、沙拉、啤酒和冰淇淋。

特征和分類[编辑]

彼此互生,針形,圓齒和羽脈狀,到了秋天樹葉會變成暗紅色,黑色的毛狀出現在葉中脈的表面,花很小,有5個花瓣和5個萼片,並且在10-25傘狀花序,果實是一個小梨果,具有非常澀的味道。

野櫻莓產於北美洲東部,有兩個著名的品種,其果色為紅色、黑色,紫色的野櫻莓是其原產地兩者自然雜交而成。紅色的野櫻莓,通常高度為2-4公尺,葉子底部寬5-8,花為白色或淡粉色,寬約1厘米,果實為紅色,4-10毫米寬,產至到冬天。

黑色的野櫻莓,略小,高度幾乎超過1公尺高。葉子較小,不超過6厘米寬。花是白色,寬1.5厘米,無毛與萼片,果實為黑色,6-9毫米寬,沒有產至冬天。

紫色的野櫻莓,果實為暗紫色偏黑色,7-10毫米的寬度,產至冬天。植物學家艾倫·威克利認為這是一種全面的物種,而不是混合紅色、黑色野櫻莓。

野櫻莓花

產品及用途[编辑]

野櫻莓耐乾旱、蟲害、污染和疾病。波蘭將野櫻莓乾燥,與草藥茶、黑醋栗混合,野櫻莓也常被用作香料或著色劑的飲料或酸奶

野櫻莓成熟漿果果汁有點澀,略帶點甜(中度含糖量),微酸(低pH值)。漿果有獨特的風味,除了作為果汁外,也可以用來作烤麵包的添加物。在美國和加拿大,野櫻莓漿果則被用於果汁產品,主要的銷售特點是它的抗氧化性能。

营养[编辑]

野櫻莓黑色的色素沉著是來自密集的多酚含量,尤其是花青素。總多酚含量為每100克新鮮果實1752毫克,花青素含量為每100克1480毫克,而原花青素濃度為每100克664毫克。這些數值都是至今為止所有植物(含蔬菜水果)中最高的量測值。

野櫻莓也含有對人體有益礦物質和維生素,即:維生素B6、B12、E、C,葉酸,奎寧酸,多酚酸,單寧,兒茶素,槲黃素,芸香素,橙皮苷,白藜蘆醇...等等。

ORAC[编辑]

在抗氧化強度的標準測量中---氧自由基吸收能力和抗氧化能力指數(ORAC),野櫻莓是所有水果中數值最高的---每100克含16,062 micromoles of Trolox Eq. 其原因為野櫻莓所富含的花青素和原花青素,這也許可以解釋其所帶有的澀味。

初步研究[编辑]

野櫻莓的潛在機能可以降低造成疾病的風險,包括:

  • 降低血液中的膽固醇
  • 結直腸癌
  • 心血管疾病
  • 慢性炎症
  • 胃粘膜疾病(消化性潰瘍)
  • 眼球炎(葡萄膜炎)
  • 肝功能衰竭
  • 抗粘連性能
  • 乳腺癌
  • 高血壓
  • 宮頸癌
  • 免疫調節作用

參考文獻[编辑]

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延伸閱讀[编辑]

外部連結[编辑]

  • ^ Potter, D., et al. (2007). Phylogeny and classification of Rosaceae. Plant Systematics and Evolution. 266(1–2): 5–43. [Referring to the subfamily by the name "Spiraeoideae"]