铜铸熟若蟹

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铜铸熟若蟹
Zosimus aeneus
在東帝汶阿陶羅島的铜铸熟若蟹
東帝汶阿陶羅島的铜铸熟若蟹
科學分類
界: 动物界 Animalia
門: 节肢动物门 Arthropoda
亞門: 甲殼亞門 Crustacea
綱: 软甲纲 Malacostraca
目: 十足目 Decapoda
科: 扇蟹科 Xanthidae
屬: 熟若蟹属 Zosimus
種: 铜铸熟若蟹 Z. aeneus
二名法
Zosimus aeneus
(Linnaeus, 1758)[1]
異名 [2]
  • Cancer aeneus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Cancer amphitrite Herbst, 1801
  • Cancer floridus Herbst, 1783
  • Zozimus aeneus (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Zozymus aeneus (Linnaeus, 1758)

铜铸熟若蟹学名Zosimus aeneus),俗名埋扇蟹[3],为扇蟹科熟若蟹属的动物。分布於太平洋日本琉球台湾南部和各離島岩礁、東南亞各國、西沙群岛海南岛夏威夷大溪地印度洋红海非洲东岸及南岸以及等地,生活环境为海水,常栖息于热带浅海的珊瑚礁丛中[1]。因為其身上劇毒,在琉球又被稱之為「眼鏡蛇蟹」。

铜铸熟若蟹的體長、大小與招潮蟹幾乎相同。其頭胸甲殼呈橫卵圓形,背面隆起分區明顯,表面光滑[4]。甲長約 6 mm,甲幅約 9 cm。全身顏色以銀灰至白色為底,加上帶啡色的獨特花紋。本物種為著名的有毒生物,有可能致命,因為其肌肉及外殼均含有神經毒素類的河魨毒麻痺性貝毒:當中以螯腳的毒素最強,蟹殼其次,內臟和肌肉毒性較弱;台灣產者主要為河魨毒,琉球和菲律賓產者主要為麻痺性貝毒[4]

簡述[编辑]

铜铸熟若蟹的體長最大可以去到60乘90毫米(2.4乘3.5英寸)[5]。其著名的鮮艷色彩及其獨特的斑駁花紋成為了其標記[6]。在其頭胸甲及步足與螫足均有這些紅棕色的斑紋,襯以淺棕到奶油色的底色。頭胸甲前側緣,螯腳掌節背緣及步腳各節前後緣皆呈薄板狀[4][7]

Distribution and ecology[编辑]

Zosimus aeneus is found across a large part of the Indo-Pacific, from South Africa to the Red Sea, and as far east as Japan, Australia and Hawaii.[5] It lives on reef flats in the intertidal zone.[5][7]

Taxonomy[编辑]

Zosimus aeneus was first described by Carl Linnaeus in his 1758 10th edition of Systema Naturae. It was transferred to the genus "Zozymus" by James Dwight Dana in 1852, which was replaced with Zosimus by Mary J. Rathbun in 1907.[5] It is the type species of the genus Zosimus.[5]

毒性[编辑]

埋扇蟹的毒性與一般扇蟹科物種類似,所以不應食用[4]。牠的毒甚至比較扇蟹還要毒,是神經性毒素。動物界裡唯一能與埋扇蟹毒性相比擬者,只有爬蟲類中的珊瑚蛇。但是被珊瑚蛇咬到還可以被急救,一旦誤食埋扇蟹,可是無法急救的,至今醫界尚未有埋扇蟹的抗毒血清,主因是埋扇蟹的毒性太過強烈,且體型小,無法提製血清。日本曾有實驗證實,光是一毫克的埋扇蟹肉,就足以殺死30隻以上的老鼠,比毒蛇還要恐怖。琉球曾經有人發生過誤食埋扇蟹煮成的鍋物,結果與食者十數人皆口吐白沫,倒地抽搐休克,送醫急救後仍全體回天乏術,不治身亡,死者皆是成年人,其毒之恐怖,因此遠近馳名。琉球人因此恐懼埋扇蟹,一旦不慎捕捉到,立即丟回海裡。

Both the shell and the meat of Zosimus aeneus contain significant concentrations of neurotoxins including tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin.[8] Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is the compound responsible for the toxicity of puffer fish, while saxitoxin (SXN) is the best known of several related neurotoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP).[9] Both are absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and interfere with sodium channels in the membranes of nerve cells.[9] Poisoning with Z. aeneus can be fatal; one man in Timor-Leste died hours after consuming the crab, having received a dose equivalent to 1–2 μg saxitoxin per kilogram body mass.[10]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 中国科学院动物研究所. 铜铸熟若蟹. 《中国动物物种编目数据库》. 中国科学院微生物研究所. [2009-04-28]. 
  2. ^ Peter Davie. Zosimus aeneus. World Register of Marine Species. 2010 [2011-03-02]. 
  3. ^ 有毒海洋生物 - 銅鑄熟若蟹. 國立台灣海洋大學海洋教育數位典藏 (中文(繁體)‎). 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 黃登福; 邵廣昭. 台灣地區有毒魚貝介類圖鑑 第2版. 台北: 正中書局. 1998. ISBN 9789570911848 (中文(繁體)‎). 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Raoul Serène & Alain Crosnier. Sous-famille des Zosiminae Alcock, 1898//Crustacés Décapodes Brachyoures de l'Océan Indien Occidental et de la Mer Rouge. Xanthoidea: Xanthidae et Trapeziidae [Crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) of the Western Indian Ocean and Red Sea. Xanthoidea: Xanthidae and Trapeziidae]. Volume 24 of Faune Tropicale. ORSTOM. 1984: 137–172. ISBN 978-2-7099-0701-9 (French). 
  6. ^ Peter K. L. Ng, Danièle Guinot & Peter J. F. Davie. Systema Brachyurorum: Part I. An annotated checklist of extant Brachyuran crabs of the world (PDF). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. 2008, 17: 1–286. 
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 Gerald Allen. Crustaceans. One of the reef's most dominant groups//Marine Life of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Periplus Nature Guides. Tuttle Publishing. 2000: 31–40. ISBN 978-962-593-948-3. 
  8. ^ D. S. Bhakuni & Diwan S. Rawat. Bioactive metabolites of marine invertebrates//Bioactive Marine Natural Products. Gulf Professional Publishing. 2005: 26–63. ISBN 978-1-4020-3472-5. 
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 Patrick Williams, Scott Willens, Jamie Anderson, Michael Adler & Corey J. Hilmas. Toxins: established and emergent threats//In Shirley D. Tuorinsky. Medical Aspects of Chemical Warfare. Government Printing Office. 2009: 613–644. 
  10. ^ Hans P. Egmond, M. E. van Apeldoorn & G. J. A. Speijers. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP)//Marine Biotoxins. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 80. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2004: 5–52. ISBN 978-92-5-105129-0. 

外部連結[编辑]

维基物种中有关铜铸熟若蟹的分类信息