間斷平衡

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上圖是傳統的漸變式演化模式,下圖則是間斷平衡理論所呈現的快速演化,並長期停滯。

間斷平衡英语Punctuated equilibrium)是一個演化生物學理論。此理論認為行有性生殖物種可在某一段時間中,經歷相對傳統觀念而言較為快速的物種形成過程,之後又經歷一段長時間無太大變化的時期。

間斷平衡理論最早是由美國古生物學家尼爾斯·艾崔奇史蒂芬·古爾德,基於恩斯特·麥爾異域性物種形成,以及其他一些遺傳理論所提出。

參見[编辑]

延伸閱讀[编辑]

  • Adler, J. and Carey, J. (1982) "Enigmas of Evolution", Newsweek, March 29, 1982.
  • Brett, C. E., L. C. Ivany, and K. M. Schopf (1996) "Coordinated stasis: An overview." Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 127 (1-4): 1-20.
  • Erwin, D. H. and R. L. Anstey (1995) New approaches to speciation in the fossil record. New York : Columbia University Press.
  • Fitch, W. J. and F. J. Ayala (1995) Tempo and mode in evolution : genetics and paleontology 50 years after Simpson. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
  • Gersick, C. J. G. (1991): Revolutionary Change Theories: A Multilevel Exploration of the Punctuated Equilibrium Paradigm. The Academy of Management Review 16 (1), pp. 10-36.
  • Ghiselin, M.T. (1986) "We Are All Contraptions", The New York Times, December 14, 1986.
  • Givel, Michael (2006) "Punctuated Equilibrium in Limbo: The Tobacco Lobby and U.S. State Policy Making From 1990 to 2003". Policy Studies Journal 43 (3): 405-418
  • Gould, S. J. (1992) "Punctuated equilibrium in fact and theory." In Albert Somit and Steven Peterson The Dynamics of Evolution. New York: Cornell University Press. pp. 54-84.
  • Gould, S. J. and N. Eldredge (1993) "Punctuated equilibrium comes of age" Nature 366 (6452): 223-227.
  • Mayr, E. (1963) Animal Species and Evolution. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Rhodes, R. H. T. (1983) "Gradualism, punctuated equilibrium and the Origin of Species." Nature 305 (5932): 269-272.

外部連結[编辑]