门 (生物)

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生物分类学
分類單元
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二名法
三域系統
非细胞生物
細胞生物

英文動物界的門為Phylum植物界的門為Division[1])是生物分类法中的一级,位于之间,有时在门下也分亚门。目前動物界擁有35個門,植物界則擁有12個門,許多門種類繁多,例如蜕皮动物有胚植物

動物門[编辑]

涵義 名稱 分類特徵 種類
棘頭動物門 Thorny headed worms Thorny-headed worms Reversible spiny proboscis approx. 756
无腔動物門 Without gut Acoels No mouth or alimentary canal (alimentary canal = digestive tract in digestive system)
環節動物門 Little ring Segmented worms 生物體柔軟,分節 17,000+ extant
節肢動物門 Jointed foot Arthropods 甲殼素外骨骼 1,134,000+
腕足動物門 Arm foot Lamp shells Lophophore,有肉莖 300-500 extant
外肛動物門 Moss animals Moss animals, sea mats Lophophore,沒有肉莖,ciliated tentacles 5,000 extant
毛顎動物門 Longhair jaw Arrow worms 在頭和鰭的兩邊均有幾丁質組成的尖刺 approx. 100 extant
脊索动物门 Cord Chordates Hollow dorsal nerve cord, 脊索, pharyngeal slits, endostyle, 肛門 approx. 100,000+
刺胞動物門 Stinging nettle Coelenterates Nematocysts (stinging cells) approx. 11,000
櫛水母動物門 Comb bearer Comb jellies Eight "comb rows" of fused cilia approx. 100 extant
環口動物門 Wheel carrying Symbion Circular mouth surrounded by small cilia 3+
棘皮動物門 Spiny skin Echinoderms Fivefold radial symmetry in living forms, mesodermal calcified spines approx. 7,000 extant; approx. 13,000 extinct
內肛動物門 Inside anus Goblet worm Anus inside ring of cilia approx. 150
腹毛動物門 Hair stomach Meiofauna Two terminal adhesive tubes approx. 690
顎胃動物門 Jaw orifice Jaw worms approx. 100
半索動物門 Half cord Acorn worms, pterobranchs Stomochord in collar, pharyngeal slits approx. 100 extant
动吻動物門 Motion snout Mud dragons Eleven segments, each with a dorsal plate approx. 150
鎧甲動物門 Corset bearer Brush heads Umbrella-like scales at each end approx. 122
微顎動物門 Tiny jaw animals Accordion like extensible thorax 1
軟體動物門 Soft Mollusks / molluscs Muscular foot and mantle round shell 112,000[2]
線蟲動物門 Thread like Round worms Round cross section, keratin cuticle 80,000–1,000,000
線形動物門 Thread form Horsehair worms approx. 320
紐形動物門 A sea nymph Ribbon worms approx. 1,200
有爪動物門 Claw bearer Velvet worms Legs tipped by chitinous claws approx. 200 extant
直泳動物門 Straight swim Single layer of ciliated cells surrounding a mass of sex cells approx. 20
帚蟲動物門 Zeus's mistress Horseshoe worms U-shaped gut 20
扁盤動物門 Plate animals 1
扁形動物門 Flat worms Flat worms approx. 25,000[3]
多孔動物門* Pore bearer Sponges Perforated interior wall 5,000+ extant
鰓曳動物門 Little Priapus 16
菱形動物門 Lozenge animal Single axial cell surrounded by ciliated cells 75
輪形動物門 Wheel bearer Rotifers Anterior crown of cilia approx. 2,000
星蟲動物門 Small tube Peanut worms Mouth surrounded by invertible tentacles 144–320
緩步動物門 Slow step Water bears Four segmented body and head 1,000+
异涡動物門 Strange flatworm Ciliated deuterostome 2
Total: 35 2,000,000-
原口動物 兩側對稱動物
後口動物
存有爭議
其他

植物門[编辑]

涵義 名稱 特徵
角苔門 Flower-horn plants Hornworts 喇叭狀的孢子體,無維管束系統
苔藓植物门 苔藓植物 Mosses 長壽的不分枝孢子體,無維管束系統
地錢門 Marchantia plants Liverworts 短暫的不分枝孢子體,無維管束系統
石松門 Wolf foot plants Clubmosses & Spikemosses 小型葉,具維管束系統
蕨類植物門 蕨類植物 Ferns & Horsetails Prothallus gametophytes, 具維管束系統
種子蕨門 有種子的蕨 Seed ferns 只從化石得知,多從泥盆紀,有爭議[4]
松柏門 Sap/pitch plants Conifers Cones containing seeds and wood composed of tracheids
蘇鐵門 Cycads Seeds, crown of compound leaves
銀杏門 銀杏 Ginkgo, Maidenhair Seeds not protected by fruit (single species)
買麻藤門 Gnetophytes Seeds and woody vascular system with vessels
被子植物門 開花植物 Flowering plants Flowers and fruit, vascular system with vessels

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ Life sciences. The American Heritage New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy third. Houghton Mifflin Company. 2005 [2008-10-04]. "Phyla in the plant kingdom are frequently called divisions." 
  2. ^ Feldkamp, S. (2002) Modern Biology. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, USA. (pp. 725)
  3. ^ Species Register. Flatworms — Phylum Platyhelminthes. Marine Discovery Centres. [2007-04-09]. 
  4. ^ "Kingdom Plantae Tree of Life". 

外部連結[编辑]