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阿道夫·赫維茲

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阿道夫·赫維茲
Adolf Hurwitz.jpg
出生 1859年3月26日(1859-03-26)
漢諾威王國希爾德斯海姆
逝世 1919年11月18日(60歲)
瑞士蘇黎世
研究領域 數學
任职於 柯尼斯堡大学
苏黎世联邦理工学院
母校 萊比錫大學
博士導師 菲利克斯·克萊因
学术指导 恩斯特·库默尔
卡尔·魏尔斯特拉斯
利奥波德·克罗内克
著名成就 黎曼-赫維茲公式
赫維茲四元數

阿道夫·赫維茲德语Adolf Hurwitz德语发音:[ˈaːdɔlf ˈhʊʁvɪts],1859年3月26日-1919年11月18日)是一位德國數學家。

早年生活[编辑]

阿道夫·赫維茲生於希爾德斯海姆(舊屬漢諾威公國,今為德國下薩克森州一隅)的一個猶太家庭。亡故於瑞士蘇黎世。據族譜記載,阿道夫·赫維茲有幾位同輩兄弟姊妹,但它們的姓名至今尚未確認. 阿道夫·赫維茲的父親是所羅門·赫維茲,雖在一家製造業公司上班,但家庭並未因此富裕. 阿道夫·赫維茲的是愛莉絲·韋特墨,在阿道夫·赫維茲三歲時即去世. 阿道夫·赫維茲於1868年進入希爾德斯海姆的一間文實中學(Realgymnasium Andreanum)就讀. 阿道夫的數學老師是赫曼·舒伯特.[1] 赫曼·舒伯特勸說阿道夫的父親讓阿道夫讀大學, 並且安排阿道夫到慕尼黑於菲利克斯·克萊因門下學習.[1] 所羅門·赫維茲雖未能支付阿道夫的大學學費,但是所羅門的朋友愛德華先生伸出了援手,願意在經濟上予阿道夫助益。

教育生涯[编辑]

1877年,阿道夫·赫維茲入慕尼黑大學學習,時年十七歲。 He spent one year there attending lectures by Klein, before spending the academic year 1877-1878 at the University of Berlin where he attended classes by Kummer, Weierstrass and Kronecker,[2] after which he returned to Munich.

1880年十月,菲利克斯·克萊因轉往萊比錫大學任教。阿道夫·赫維茲亦追隨其師至萊比錫大學。 moved to the University of Leipzig. Hurwitz followed him there, and became a doctoral student under Klein's direction, finishing a dissertation on elliptic modular functions in 1881. Following two years at the University of Göttingen, in 1884 he was invited to become an Extraordinary Professor at the Albertus Universität in Königsberg; there he encountered the young David Hilbert and Hermann Minkowski, on whom he had a major influence. Following the departure of Frobenius, Hurwitz took a chair at the Eidgenössische Polytechnikum Zürich (today the ETH Zürich) in 1892 (having to turn down a position at Göttingen shortly after [2]), and remained there for the rest of his life.

Throughout his time in Zürich, Hurwitz suffered from continual ill health, which had been originally caused when he contracted typhoid whilst a student in Munich. He suffered from severe migraines, and then in 1905, his kidneys became diseased and he had one removed.

數學貢獻[编辑]

He was one of the early masters of the Riemann surface theory, and used it to prove many of the foundational results on algebraic curves; for instance Hurwitz's automorphisms theorem. This work anticipates a number of later theories, such as the general theory of algebraic correspondences, Hecke operators, and Lefschetz fixed-point theorem. He also had deep interests in number theory. He studied the maximal order theory (as it now would be) for the quaternions, defining the Hurwitz quaternions that are now named for him.

家庭[编辑]

In 1884, whilst at Königsberg, Hurwitz met and married Ida Samuel, the daughter of a professor in the faculty of medicine. They had three children.

參看[编辑]

Notes[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 K Weierstrass, Einleitung in die Theorie der analytischen Funktionen (Braunschweig, 1988)
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., Hurwitz//MacTutor History of Mathematics archive 

外部連結[编辑]