饥荒列表

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愛爾蘭大饑荒受害者的描繪, 1845-1849

饑荒列表是一份關於世界各地已知的主要饑荒的列表,各場饑荒依照期發生日期排列。

前5世紀[编辑]

前2世紀[编辑]

  • 在公元前108年到1911年在中國的主要饑荒至少有1828件,或可說是幾乎每年就會發生在一個或者更多的省裡。然而各個饑荒的嚴重程度有很大的不同。 [1][2]

5世紀[编辑]

7世紀[编辑]

8世紀[编辑]

9世紀[编辑]

  • 800–1000 AD,嚴重的乾旱導致數以百萬的馬雅人餓死或渴死,並摧毀了他們的文明。[5]
  • 809 法蘭克帝國發生饑荒[6]
  • 875–884 由於饑荒導致了中國的農民起義、暴動(黃巢之亂)。

10世紀[编辑]

  • 927 拜占庭帝國發生饑荒
  • 963–964 愛爾蘭發生饑荒
  • 968 埃及發生饑荒,五十萬人死亡

11世紀[编辑]

  • 1005 英格蘭發生饑荒[7] 在中世紀不列顛發生了95起饑荒。[8][9]
  • 1016 饑荒侵襲了整個歐洲[10]
  • 1022、1033、1052年 印度發生重大饑荒,好幾個省份赤地千里,無人居住。
  • 1025 埃及發生饑荒
  • 1030–1032 法國發生饑荒
  • 1064–1072 埃及發生長達七年的饑荒
  • 1051 饑荒侵襲了托尔特克文明,迫使人們離開受災區域(今墨西哥中部[11]
  • 1066 英國發生饑荒
  • 1097 巴勒斯坦發生饑荒,五十萬人死亡
  • 1097 法國爆發饑荒與瘟疫,十萬人死亡

12世紀[编辑]

  • 1199–1202 在埃及發生饑荒

13世紀[编辑]

14世紀[编辑]

  • 在1315-1317年時歐洲發生大饑荒(en:Great Famine of 1315–1317)[14]
  • 1333 葡萄牙發生饑荒
  • 1333–1334 西班牙發生饑荒
  • 1333–1337 中國發生饑荒[15]
  • 1344–1345 印度發生重大饑荒
  • 1387 在帖木兒離開安那托利亞(小亞細亞)後,接踵而來地發生了嚴重饑荒
  • 1390 英國發生饑荒
  • 1396–1407 印度發生「難近母(Durga Devi)」饑荒,持續了12年[16]

15世紀[编辑]

16世紀[编辑]

17世紀[编辑]

18世紀[编辑]

19世紀[编辑]

20世紀[编辑]

21世紀[编辑]

參見[编辑]

注釋[编辑]

  1. ^ China: Land of Famine
  2. ^ "Heaven, Observe!" – TIME
  3. ^ A Brief History of Population
  4. ^ Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages
  5. ^ The Great Maya Droughts: Water, Life, and Death
  6. ^ The Ninth Century
  7. ^ 1005: The People's Chronology
  8. ^ Famines through history.
  9. ^ Poor studies will always be with us
  10. ^ Famine – LoveToKnow 1911
  11. ^ The Facts of Malnutrition and Famine
  12. ^ Portugal > History and Events
  13. ^ Collapse: Chaco Canyon
  14. ^ The Great Famine and the Black Death
  15. ^ Projects and Events: 14th Century
  16. ^ Bidar District Important Historical Events
  17. ^ Welcome to The Human Past
  18. ^ Land and Society in Golden Age Castile
  19. ^ The Dimension of Famine
  20. ^ Boris Feodorovich Godunov
  21. ^ Russia before Peter the Great
  22. ^ A Chronology of Japanese History
  23. ^ BBC – Northern Ireland – A Short History
  24. ^ The 17th Century
  25. ^ Italian States in the Seventeenth Century
  26. ^ Appleby, Andrew B. Epidemics and Famine in the Little Ice Age. Journal of Interdisciplinary History. 1980, 10 (4): 643–663. doi:10.2307/203063. 
  27. ^ Ó Gráda, Cormac; Chevet, Jean-Michel. Famine And Market In Ancient Régime France. The Journal of Economic History. 2002, 62: 706–733. doi:10.1017/S0022050702001055. 
  28. ^ Finland timeline
  29. ^ The Dimension of Famine.
  30. ^ The Little Ice Age in Europe
  31. ^ Climatic fluctuation and natural disasters in Arabia between mid-17th and early 20th Centuries
  32. ^ Epidemics and Famine in the Little Ice Age
  33. ^ 馬利共和國的城市,曾是伊斯蘭文化中心
  34. ^ Len Milich: Anthropogenic Desertification vs ‘Natural’ Climate Trends
  35. ^ en:Senegambia Confederation,是非洲西部由塞內加爾河甘比亞河灌溉的地區
  36. ^ [1]
  37. ^ Naples and Sicily -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  38. ^ FAMINE ()
  39. ^ The locust plague
  40. ^ Haze Famine (Icelandic history)
  41. ^ Chalisa是印度斯坦語「第四十」的意思,指事件發生在印度教曆法的1840年
  42. ^ ScienceDaily: Icelandic Volcano Caused Historic Famine In Egypt, Study Shows
  43. ^ Grove, Richard H. Global Impact of the 1789–93 El Niño. Nature. 1998, 393 (6683): 318–319. doi:10.1038/30636. 
  44. ^ Wood, C. A. The climatic effects of the 1783 Laki eruption//In Harrington, C. R. (ed.). The Year Without a Summer?. Ottawa: Canadian Museum of Nature. 1992: 58–77. 
  45. ^ Neumann, J. Great Historical Events that were Significantly Affected by the Weather: 2, The Year Leading to the Revolution of 1789 in France. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 1977, 58 (2): 163–168. doi:10.1175/1520-0477(1977)058<0163:GHETWS>2.0.CO;2. 
  46. ^ Doji bara 指的是大地被顱骨與未埋葬的屍體給覆蓋的意思
  47. ^ Fearfull Famines of the Past
  48. ^ The Great Famine in Ireland, 1845–1849
  49. ^ Ch'ing China: The Taiping Rebellion
  50. ^ The Great Persian Famine of 1870-1871
  51. ^ The St. Lawrence Island Famine and Epidemic, 1878–80, Arctic Anthropology
  52. ^ Famine Hunger stalks Ethiopia once again – and aid groups fear the worst
  53. ^ El Niño and Drought Early Warning in Ethiopia
  54. ^ The History of International Humanitarian Assistance
  55. ^ Spiridovich, Alexander. Revolutionary movement in Russian. Ed. 2. (俄文)
  56. ^ en:Late Victorian Holocausts
  57. ^ Global Connections . Timeline
  58. ^ Famine perspectives from past and present
  59. ^ World's worst natural disasters since 1900
  60. ^ The German Colonies on the Volga River – Famine Years
  61. ^ en:Soviet famine of 1932–1933
  62. ^ The NDSU Libraries: Germans From Russia
  63. ^ Famine of 1932, or Ukrainian genocide (Soviet history)
  64. ^ Legacy of famine divides Ukraine
  65. ^ The Kazakh Catastrophe and Stalin’s Order of Priorities, 1929–1933: Evidence from the Soviet Secret Archives
  66. ^ Natural Disasters and Hazards – Historical Events Timeline
  67. ^ 900-Day Siege of Leningrad
  68. ^ en:Axis Occupation of Greece
  69. ^ Famine and Death in Occupied Greece, 1941-1944
  70. ^ Surviving Hitler and Mussolini: daily life in occupied Europe, by Robert Gildea, Anette Warring, Olivier Wieviorka, Berg Publishers 2007
  71. ^ The 1947 Soviet famine and the entitlement approach to famines, Cambridge Journal of Economics
  72. ^ Nicholas Ganson, The Soviet Famine of 1946-47 in Global and Historical Perspective[2]. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. (ISBN 0-230-61333-0)
  73. ^ The world's worst natural disasters
  74. ^ Famine Casts Its Grim Global Shadow, TIME
  75. ^ Derg,在吉茲語裡是「委員會」或「評議會」的意思。是一個共產主義軍人團體
  76. ^ Bruce Cumings: We look at it and see ourselves
  77. ^ Famine plagues Zimbabwe
  78. ^ 位在蘇丹共和國西部
  79. ^ Food crisis looms in Myanmar, International Herald Tribune
  80. ^ North Korea at risk of famine, says U.N., CNN.com
  81. ^ The Next Great North Korean Famine, TIME
  82. ^ Ethiopia facing new famine with 4.5 million children in danger of starvation , Telegraph
  83. ^ Famine Looms as Wars Rend Horn of Africa, New York Times. May 17, 2008 .
  84. ^ Food crisis leaves Afghans desperate, msnbc.com
  85. ^ Food Crisis Looms in Bangladesh, International Business Times
  86. ^ In-depth | Food Crisis: Status and Impacts, IRIN
  87. ^ Tajikistan: Almost One-Third of the Population Is in Danger of Going Hungry This Winter, EurasiaNet
  88. ^ National Food Emergency Grips Kenya. 20 Jan 2009.
  89. ^ Starvation and Strife Menace Torn Kenya. The New York Times. February 28, 2009.
  90. ^ UN expected to declare famine in south Somalia. 20 July 20-11.
  91. ^ book on the great ENSO famines of 1876–80, 1896–1900

外部連結[编辑]