2011年凡城地震

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2011年凡城地震
2011 Van depremi
2011年凡城地震在土耳其的位置
震中位置圖
Van EQ intensity USGS.jpg
美國地質調查局震度圖
主震
日期 2011年10月23日
發生時間 13:41(歐洲東部夏令時間)(UTC+3
震中 38°37′41″N 43°29′10″E / 38.628°N 43.486°E / 38.628; 43.486坐标38°37′41″N 43°29′10″E / 38.628°N 43.486°E / 38.628; 43.486
规模 7.2 Ms[1][2][3][3]
最大烈度 X[4]
深度 5.0 公里[5] / 20 公里[6]
余震
餘震 9367[7]
破坏
受影響地區  土耳其
 亚美尼亚
 阿塞拜疆
 格鲁吉亚
 伊朗
 伊拉克
 以色列
 叙利亚
傷亡人數 10月23日主震:604人死亡,4152人受傷[8][9],2262棟房屋倒塌
11月9日餘震:40人死亡,260人受傷

2011年凡城地震,震央位于土耳其东部凡城省境内,靠近与伊朗边境地区,地震规模为里氏7.2,震源深度距离地表7.2公里,发生于当地时间2011年10月23日13点41分21秒(UTC时间10时41分21秒)[10]。该次地震造成至少573人死亡、2608多人受伤,2262棟房屋倒塌。[11]

地質[编辑]

這起里氏規模7.2(Mw)的主震是發生於2011年10月23日當地時間13:41(10:41 UTC),震源大約在凡城北北東方16公里處,深度20公里。

由於地震強度大且震源較淺,該地震於大範圍地區造成強烈地動,凡城測得的地震列度屬麥加利地震烈度9度(MM IX);於震央附近相當大範圍地區則屬6至8度(MM VI–VIII),而這些地區人口較少[12];測得為3至5度(MM III-V)的地區更廣,已延伸至亞美尼亞亞塞拜然喬治亞伊朗伊拉克以色列敘利亞境內[4][13][14]

災情[编辑]

凡城地震的主震及餘震影響土耳其東部地區,造成數百棟房屋倒塌,有多人被廢墟掩埋,凡城北部的埃爾吉斯為受災最嚴重的地區之一,僅於該城就至少造成55棟房屋倒塌、45人死亡及156受傷[15][16]。大部分倒塌的房屋鄰近主要道路且多有人居住,造成傷亡相對嚴重,於震央附近村莊的磚造房屋也近乎全部倒塌[17]

於凡城省首府凡城,至少造成100人死亡及970棟房屋[18]。監獄的圍牆因地震倒塌後,約有200名囚犯趁亂逃走,隨後有50多人返回監獄[17]。有媒體報導凡城機場因地震受損而停止運作,不過也有消息指出該機場仍正常運作[19][20]

國際反應[编辑]

歐盟北約(NATO)表示了慰問,北約將會提供幫助[21],土耳其族塞浦路斯社區也表示了慰問[22]亞美尼亞總統薩爾基相對土耳其總統居爾表示了慰問,並願意提供即時的幫助[23]美國總統奧巴馬在一份聲明中說:“我們會並肩與土耳其的盟友渡過這個困難的時刻,並準備協助土耳其當局”[24]

亞美尼亞[25]、阿塞拜疆[26]保加利亞中國[27]丹麥[28]、格魯吉亞、德國[29]希臘匈牙利、伊朗[30]愛爾蘭[31]、以色列[14]日本科索沃新西蘭巴基斯坦[32]波蘭韓國瑞典瑞士台灣[33]烏克蘭英國和美國也向土耳其提供了援助[34][35]。截至10月23日,土耳其拒絕了由以色列的援助,而且沒有回應大多數願意提供援助的國家,除了鄰國阿塞拜疆[36][26]

11月9日地震[编辑]

規模5.7的地震發生於土耳其當地時間11月9日21時23分(UTC:19:23),造成7人死亡[37],震央位於凡城南方16公里[38]。該地震尚未確定是否為10月23日地震的餘震[39]。而坎迪利地震中心認為該地震與10月23日的地震並無關連[40]

此次地震造成25棟房屋倒塌,由於多數房屋的居民已先撤離,地震當時僅有三棟房屋有人居住,否則傷亡將更加慘重。[41]

參見[编辑]

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ Boğaziçi Üniversitesi. Recent Earthquakes. Kandilli Observatory. 23 October 2011 [23 October 2011]. 
  2. ^ Boğaziçi Üniversitesi. 23 Ekim 2011 Van Depremi Basın Bülteni. koeri.boun.edu.tr. 23 October 2011 [23 October 2011]. 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 O'Bryne, David. Eastern Turkey hit by 7.2 magnitude quake. bbc.co.uk. 23 October 2011 [23 October 2011]. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 PAGER - M 7.2 - EASTERN TURKEY. United States Geological Survey. 23 October 2011 [23 October 2011]. 
  5. ^ Kandilli Rasathanesi,son depremler sayfası, 23.10.2011'de erişilmiştir.
  6. ^ Amerika Jeolojik Araştırmalar Kurumu,Van depremi sayfası, 23.10.2011'de erişilmiştir.
  7. ^ http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/gundem/20256858.asp
  8. ^ Earthquake Van – Ercis, Turkey. earthquake-report.com. [October 30, 2011]. 
  9. ^ http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/n.php?n=death-toll-reaches-573-after-a-week-2011-10-28
  10. ^ http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/recenteqsww/Quakes/usb0006bqc.php
  11. ^ http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/n.php?n=death-toll-reaches-573-after-a-week-2011-10-28
  12. ^ Pager Version 2 – M7.2, Eastern Turkey (PDF). United States Geological Survey. 23 October 2011 [23 October 2011]. 
  13. ^ Strong Earthquake Hits Turkey. Interpress News. 23 October 2011 [23 October 2011]. 
  14. ^ 14.0 14.1 Israel offers aid to Turkey in wake of massive earthquake. Haaretz. 23 October 2011 [23 October 2011]. 
  15. ^ Mackenzie, Craig. 'We Can Hear the Screams': 1,000 Feared Dead in Turkish Earthquake as Scores of Buildings Collapse. Daily Mail. 23 October 2011 [23 October 2011]. 
  16. ^ Hacaoglu, Selcan. 7.2 Quake in Turkey Kills 45, Collapses Buildings. Agence France-Presse (via Google News). 23 October 2011 [23 October 2011]. 
  17. ^ 17.0 17.1 (需註冊) Arsu, Sebnem. Many Die as Eastern Turkey Is Jolted by Quake. The New York Times. 23 October 2011 [24 October 2011]. 
  18. ^ Staff. Death Toll Mounts after Earthquake in Eastern Turkey. Associated Press (via Herald Sun). 24 October 2011 [26 October 2011]. 
  19. ^ Staff. 7.2 Quake in Turkey Kills at Least 138, Collapses Buildings – More Than 100 Aftershocks Are Recorded – The Quake Is Also Felt Widely in Iran and Armenia, Though There Are No Reports of Casualties There. Los Angeles Times. 23 October 2011 [26 October 2011]. 
  20. ^ [失效連結] [1]. The Daily Telegraph.
  21. ^ EU ‘saddened’ by Turkey quake, NATO offers help. Khaleej Times. 23 October 2011 [23 October 2011]. 
  22. ^ Dünyadan taziye mesajı yağıyor. Hurriyet. 23 October 2011 [23 October 2011] (Turkish). 
  23. ^ Armenian president send condolences and offered help for Turkey. News.am. 23 October 2011 [23 October 2011]. 
  24. ^ Bohan, Caren; Bill Trott. Obama: U.S. greatly concerned over Turkey quake. Reuters. 23 October 2011 [24 October 2011]. 
  25. ^ Armenian president offers aid to Turkey. Tert. 23 October 2011 [23 October 2011]. 
  26. ^ 26.0 26.1 Azerbaycan, deprem bölgesine ilk dış yardımı gönderen ülke oldu. Azeri hükümeti, arama kurtarma ekipleriyle birlikte tıbbi ve yaşam malzemesi dolu uçağı Van'a gönderdi. Internet Haber. 23 October 2011 [23 October 2011] (Turkish). 
  27. ^ Turkey earthquake: Up to 1,000 feared dead as dozens of buildings collapse. National Post. 23 October 2011 [23 October 2011]. 
  28. ^ "Min kone og mit barn er derinde!". Jyllandsposten. 23 October 2011 [23 October 2011] (Danish). 
  29. ^ Germany Offers Help to Turkey After Quake, Westerwelle Says. Bloomberg. 23 October 2011 [23 October 2011]. 
  30. ^ Iran is ready to help with every aspect because of the earthquake in Van. Habermonitor. 23 October 2011 [23 October 2011]. 
  31. ^ Tánaiste offers rapid response corps to quake-hit Turkey. Irish Examiner. 23 October 2011 [23 October 2011]. 
  32. ^ Pakistan sympatises with Turkey; offers immediate assistance. APP. 23 October 2011 [23 October 2011]. 
  33. ^ New Taipei Rescue Team Prepares To Aid Turkey. Focus Taiwan News Channel. 24 October 2011 [24 October 2011]. 
  34. ^ International community offers aid to Turkey after earthquake. TRT World. 23 October 2011 [23 October 2011]. 
  35. ^ Turkey’s worst quake since 1999 may have killed 1,000. The Salt Lake Tribune. 23 October 2011 [23 October 2011]. 
  36. ^ Turkey declines Israeli aid offer. Reuters. 23 October 2011 [23 October 2011]. 
  37. ^ http://edition.cnn.com/2011/11/09/world/turkey-earthquake/?hpt=wo_c2
  38. ^ Turkey earthquake: Seven dead in toppled Van hotel. BBC. [November 10, 2011]. 
  39. ^ http://www.sofiaecho.com/2011/11/10/1200927_earthquake-of-57-magnitude-hits-eastern-turkey-kills-seven
  40. ^ [2]
  41. ^ Turkey: Earthquake kills at least 7, dozens trapped in area hit by deadly temblor last month. Ankara: The Washington Post. Associated Press. [November 10, 2011].