2012年度美国国防授权法案

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2012财政年度美国国防授权法案英语National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012[1] 是由美国总统奥巴马与2011年12月31日签署的一项法案。[2] [3] 该法案共计拨款6620亿美元[4]给“美国防御及海外利益”。奥巴马总统在签署声明中描述,该法案用于解决国家安全计划、国防部的医疗费用、国内外的反恐及军队现代化建设等问题。[5] [6]

法庭外无限拘禁 第1021款[编辑]

于2002年1月抵达Camp X-Ray的被拘留者。2006年5月, 联合国反酷刑委员会谴责了关塔那摩湾对待囚犯的方式,认为无限期拘留本质上违背了联合国禁止酷刑公约。

美国国防授权法案关于拘留的章节以“肯定”总统具有关于对恐怖分子使用军事力量的授权(AUMF)规定的权力开始。关于对恐怖分子使用军事力量的授权是直接受911袭击事件影响而通过的两议院共同决议案。该决议案赋予总统基于战争法使用美军拘留任何“属于或暗中支持‘基地’组织、塔利班,或涉及相关敌视美国及其盟友的团体”的人(包括美国公民[7]),以及任何卷入对美国或其盟友的“交战行为”以帮助这些团体的人的权力,“无须审判,直到关于对恐怖分子使用军事力量的授权所定义的敌对行为结束为止”。

军事拘留 第1022款[编辑]

争议[编辑]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ 112th Congress, 1st Session, H1540CR.HSE: "National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012."
  2. ^ Obama signs defense bill, pledges to maintain legal rights of terror suspects. Washington Post. [December 31, 2011]. 
  3. ^ Obama Signs NDAA. ACLU. 31 November 2011 [2011-12-31]. 
  4. ^ Wolverton, J., "Obama Signs National Defense Authorization Act into Law," The New American, [1].
  5. ^ “President Obama's signing statement” , “White House Press Office”, December 31, 2011
  6. ^ Barack Obama: Statement on Signing the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012. John T. Woolley and Gerhard Peters, The American Presidency Project [online]. December 31, 2011 [2012-01-03]. 
  7. ^ Greenwald, Glenn. Three myths about the detention bill. Salon (website). 16 December 2012 [16 November 2012]. "Section 1021, authorizes indefinite detention for the broad definition of “covered persons” […]. And that section does provide that “Nothing in this section shall be construed to affect existing law or authorities relating to the detention of United States citizens, lawful resident aliens of the United States, or any other persons who are captured or arrested in the United States.” So that section contains a disclaimer regarding an intention to expand detention powers for U.S. citizens, but does so only for the powers vested by that specific section. More important, the exclusion appears to extend only to U.S. citizens “captured or arrested in the United States” — meaning that the powers of indefinite detention vested by that section apply to U.S. citizens captured anywhere abroad (there is some grammatical vagueness on this point, but at the very least, there is a viable argument that the detention power in this section applies to U.S. citizens captured abroad)."