KMDF

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Kernel-Mode Driver Framework核心模式驅動程式架構,簡稱KMDF),是美國微軟公司推出的視窗驅動程式基礎(Windows Driver Foundation)之一,建構Windows XPWindows Server 2003的核心模式(Kernel-Mode)驅動程式所需的基本功能,包括對隨插即用(PNP)、電源管理(Power Manager)、I/O佇列、直接記憶體存取(DMA)、Windows Management Instrumentation(WMI)和同步處理等的完整支援。KMDF的設計並不能用來取代WDM,它提供“Skeletal WDM”建置來替代WDM;目前,KMDF並不支援匯流排篩選驅動程式(Bus Filter Driver)。

Kernel-Mode Driver Framework目前支援下列類型的核心模式(kernel mode)驅動程式之建立:

  • 隨插即用(PNP)裝置所使用的Function Driver。
  • 隨插即用(PNP)裝置所使用的Filter Driver。
  • 隨插即用(PNP)裝置堆疊(Stack)所使用的Bus Driver。
  • Windows NT 4.0型態裝置所使用的Control裝置驅動程式。

KMDF是可重新進入程式庫(Reentrant Library)。

與WDM的關係[编辑]

自Windows 2000開始,開發驅動程式必以WDM為基礎的,但開發難度太大,無法像使用者模式應用程式開發那樣容易。KMDF支援驅動程式在Windows Driver Model環境中撰寫驅動程式,簡化其中的過程,但是KMDF的設計並不能用來取代WDM,它提供「Skeletal WDM」建置來替代WDM。早期的WDM可支援Windows 98Windows MeWindows 2000,以及Windows XP;至於WDF計劃支援Windows XP,以及更新的版本。

KMDF係以物件為基底建立於WDM架構之上。不同的功能有不同的物件,KMDF在實作上包含了:

驅動程式進入點[编辑]

在Windows作業系統中驅動程式的起始點都是在DriverEntry函式,DriveryEntry是驅動程式的進入點(entry point)。在DriverEntry函式的實作裡,你需要具現化(instantiate)你的WDFDRIVER物件,並且告知WDF framework要去哪裡呼叫你的系統。

NTSTATUS DriverEntry(
   IN PDRIVER_OBJECT  DriverObject,
   IN PUNICODE_STRING  RegistryPath
   )
{
 WDF_DRIVER_CONFIG config;
 NTSTATUS status = S_OK;
 KdPrint((__DRIVER_NAME "DriverEntry Begin\n"));
 WDF_DRIVER_CONFIG_INIT(&config, EvtDeviceAdd);
 status = WdfDriverCreate(
                     DriverObject,
                     RegistryPath,
                     WDF_NO_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES,
                     &config, // Pointer to config structure
                     WDF_NO_HANDLE); // or NULL, Pointer to get WDFDRIVER handle
 if(T_SUCCESS(status))
 {
   KdPrint((__DRIVER_NAME "WdfDriverCreate failed with status 0x%08x\n", status));
 }
 KdPrint((__DRIVER_NAME "DriverEntry End\n"));
 return status;
}

Add Device[编辑]

EvtDeviceAdd函數,在系統發現新硬體插入時被呼叫。這個函數將挑起WDF驅動程式架構的大部分工作,EvtDeviceAdd事件被喚起之餘一定會帶出一個WDFDRIVER物件,並且指向一個WDFDEVICE_INIT結構。在裝置產生(device crated)之前,必先進行初始化的動作。如果EvtDeviceAdd執行成功,那麼EvtDevicePrepareHardware是架構下一個被執行的函式,用以保證驅動程式能夠訪問硬體。

WDFSTATUS DioEvtDeviceAdd(WDFDRIVER Driver, PWDFDEVICE_INIT DeviceInit)
{
 WDFSTATUS status = STATUS_SUCCESS;
 WDF_PNPPOWER_EVENT_CALLBACKS pnpPowerCallbacks;
 WDF_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES objAttributes;
 WDFDEVICE device;
 PDIO_DEVICE_CONTEXT devContext;
 WDF_IO_QUEUE_CONFIG ioCallbacks;
 WDF_INTERRUPT_CONFIG interruptConfig;
 WDF_DEVICE_POWER_POLICY_IDLE_SETTINGS idleSettings;
 WDF_PNPPOWER_EVENT_CALLBACKS_INIT(&pnpPowerCallbacks);
 pnpPowerCallbacks.EvtDevicePrepareHardware = DioEvtPrepareHardware;
 pnpPowerCallbacks.EvtDeviceReleaseHardware = DioEvtReleaseHardware;
 pnpPowerCallbacks.EvtDeviceD0Entry= DioEvtDeviceD0Entry;
 pnpPowerCallbacks.EvtDeviceD0Exit = DioEvtDeviceD0Exit;
 WdfDeviceInitSetPnpPowerEventCallbacks(DeviceInit, pnpPowerCallbacks);
 WDF_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES_INIT(&objAttributes);
 WDF_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES_SET_CONTEXT_TYPE(&objAttributes, DIO_DEVICE_CONTEXT);
 status = WdfDeviceInitUpdateName(DeviceInit, L"\\device\\WDFDIO");
 status = WdfDeviceCreate(&DeviceInit,    // Device Init structure
                          &objAttributes, // Attributes for WDF Device
                          &device);       // return new WDF Device pointer,
 devContext = DioGetContextFromDevice(device); // Get device extension
 devContext->WdfDevice = device;
 // Create a symbolic link for the control object
 status = WdfDeviceCreateSymbolicLink(device, L"\\DosDevices\\WDFDIO");
 WDF_IO_QUEUE_CONFIG_INIT(&ioCallbacks,
                            WdfIoQueueDispatchSerial,
                            WDF_NO_EVENT_CALLBACK,     // StartIo
                            WDF_NO_EVENT_CALLBACK);    // CancelRoutine
 ioCallbacks.EvtIoDeviceControl = DioEvtDeviceControlIoctl;
 status = WdfDeviceCreateDefaultQueue(device,
                                       &ioCallbacks,
                                       WDF_NO_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES,
                                       NULL); // pointer to default queue
 WDF_INTERRUPT_CONFIG_INIT(&interruptConfig,       // Configure the Interrupt object
                             FALSE,                // auto-queue DPC?
                             DioIsr,               // ISR
                             DioDpc);              // Defered Procedule Call
 interruptConfig.EvtInterruptEnable = DioEvtInterruptEnable;
 interruptConfig.EvtInterruptDisable = DioEvtInterruptDisable;
 status = WdfInterruptCreate(device,
                             &interruptConfig,
                             &objAttributes,
                             &devContext->WdfInterrupt);
 WDF_DEVICE_POWER_POLICY_IDLE_SETTINGS_INIT(&idleSettings,  // Initialize idle policy
                                             IdleCannotWakeFromS0);
 status = WdfDeviceUpdateS0IdleSettings(device, &idleSettings);
 return status;
}

Prepare Hardware[编辑]

如果EvtDeviceAdd順利執行成功,那麼EvtDevicePrepareHardware是架構下一個被執行的函式,用以保證驅動程式能夠訪問硬體。

NTSTATUS EvtDevicePrepareHardware(
   IN WDFDEVICE    Device,
   IN WDFCMRESLIST ResourceList,
   IN WDFCMRESLIST ResourceListTranslated
   )
{
 NTSTATUS status = STATUS_SUCCESS;
 UNREFERENCED_PARAMETER(Device);
 UNREFERENCED_PARAMETER(ResourceList);
 UNREFERENCED_PARAMETER(ResourceListTranslated);
 return status;
}
NTSTATUS EvtDeviceD0Entry(
   IN WDFDEVICE  Device,
   IN WDF_POWER_DEVICE_STATE  PreviousState
   )
{
 NTSTATUS status = STATUS_SUCCESS;
 return status;
}
NTSTATUS EvtDeviceD0Exit(
   IN WDFDEVICE  Device,
   IN WDF_POWER_DEVICE_STATE  TargetState
   )
{
 NTSTATUS status = STATUS_SUCCESS;
 return status;
}

IO requests[编辑]

VOID EvtDeviceIoDefault(
   IN WDFQUEUE  Queue,
   IN WDFREQUEST  Request
   )
{
 WdfRequestComplete(Request, STATUS_NOT_IMPLEMENTED);
}

外部連結[编辑]

Architecture of the Kernel-Mode Driver Framework白皮書