TV 區分

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社會語言學中,TV 區分係指一個語言中第二人稱代名詞之間呈現出的對比及差異,旨專門對聽者表達不同程度的禮貌禮節、社會距離(social distance)、親暱、年齡差距,甚至是羞辱。
有些語言(如英語)並沒有語法上的TV 區分,可能取而代之的是以語意學上相對應的方式來對聽者表達上述的態度不同,例如是否以名字或姓氏稱呼對方,或是否以 "先生(sir)"/"夫人(ma'am)"稱呼之(此為美式英語中的情形)。

歷史及用法[编辑]

實例[编辑]

比較表[编辑]

日耳曼語系[编辑]

羅曼語系[编辑]

印歐語系[编辑]

人造語言[编辑]

世界語
伊多語

參考資料[编辑]

T–V distinction :TV 區分對應的英語條目
Balbo, Sophie. Dites-moi tu. L'Hebdo. 23 June 2005. 
Blume, Mary. Mastering the Unmasterable: A French Puzzle. International Herald Tribune. 19 February 2000. 
Brown, Roger and Albert Gilman, (1960) The Pronouns of Power and Solidarity in Seboek (1960) and Giglioli (1972) Also in American Anthropologist 4 (6): 24–39.
Cook, Manuela (2013). "Portuguese Pronouns and Other Forms of Address, from the Past into the Future - Structural, Semantic and Pragmatic Reflections", Ellipsis, volume 11, www.portuguese-apsa.com/ellipsis
Cook, Manuela (2010). A Theory for the Interpretation of Forms of Address in the Portuguese Language http://www.lusophonepublishing.com
Cook, Manuela (2000) Power and Solidarity Revisited, 28th Romance Linguistics Seminar Meeting, Trinity Hall, University of Cambridge.
Cook, Manuela (1997), Forms of Address (Uma Teoria de Interpretação das Formas de Tratamento na Língua Portuguesa), Hispania 80.3.
Chatelain, E. (1880), "Du pluriel de respect en latin", Revue de Philologie IV (April 1880): 129–139.
Crystal, David (2004). The Stories of English. Penguin Books.
Crystal, David and Ben Crystal (2002), Shakespeare's Words: A Glossary and Language Companion, Penguin Books
Faygal, Szuszuanna, Douglas Kibbee & Fred Jenkins (2006) French, A Linguistic Introduction. Cambridge University Press.
Giglioli, Per Paolo (ed) (1972), Language and Social Context, Penguin Books
Helmbrecht, Johannes (2005), "Politeness Distinctions in Pronouns", in. Haspelmath, Martin et al. (eds.), The World Atlas of Language Structures, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 186–190.
Jucker, Andreas and Irma Taavitsainen (eds.), (2003), Diachronic Perspectives on Address Term Systems, Amsterdam: Benjamins
Seboek, T.A. (ed) (1960), Style in Language, MIT Press
On-line Middle English grammar (PDF file)
Compact Edition of the Oxford English Dictionary, The. New York, Oxford University Press, 1971.