Tau蛋白

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Microtubule-associated protein tau
微管相关蛋白tau

Rendering of a fragment of MAPT bound to the WW domain of the PIN1 protein from PDB 1I8H
有效结构
PDB 直系同源检索:PDBe, RCSB
标识
代号 MAPT; DDPAC; FTDP-17; MAPTL; MSTD; MTBT1; MTBT2; PPND; TAU
扩展标识 遗传学157140 同源基因74962 ChEMBL: 1293224 GeneCards: MAPT Gene
RNA表达模式
PBB GE MAPT 203929 s at tn.png
PBB GE MAPT 203928 x at tn.png
PBB GE MAPT 203930 s at tn.png
更多表达数据
直系同源体
物种 人类 鼠类
Entrez 4137 17762
Ensembl ENSG00000186868 ENSMUSG00000018411
UniProt P10636 P10637
mRNA序列 NM_001123066 NM_001038609
蛋白序列 NP_001116538 NP_001033698
基因位置 Chr 17:
43.97 – 44.11 Mb
Chr 11:
104.23 – 104.33 Mb
PubMed查询 [1] [2]

tau蛋白英语Tau proteins)是一种微管相关蛋白英语microtubule-associated protein,在中枢神经系统神经元非常丰富而少见于其它细胞,但在中枢神经系统的星形胶质细胞少突胶质细胞英语oligodendrocyte中表达量也很低[1]。 Pathologies and dementias of the nervous system such as Alzheimer's disease can result when tau proteins become defective and no longer stabilize microtubules properly.

tau蛋白的多种蛋白异型体是由单个基因(人类基因组中为MAPT,microtubule-associated protein tau,微管相关蛋白tau)mRNA的選擇性剪接而形成的[2][3]。1975年,它们由Marc Kirschner普林斯顿大学的实验室中发现[4]

功能[编辑]

tau蛋白是一种高度可溶的微管相关蛋白英语microtubule-associated protein(MAP)。In humans, these proteins are mostly found in neurons compared to non-neuronal cells. tau蛋白的主要功能之一是 to modulate the stability of axonal microtubules. Other nervous system MAPs may perform similar functions, as suggested by tau knockout mice, who did not show abnormalities in brain development - possibly because of compensation in tau deficiency by other MAPs.[5] Tau is not present in dendrites and is active primarily in the distal portions of axons where it provides microtubule stabilization but also flexibility as needed. This contrasts with MAP6 (STOP) proteins in the proximal portions of axons which essentially lock down the microtubules and MAP2 that stabilizes microtubules in dendrites.

Tau proteins interact with tubulin to stabilize microtubules and promote tubulin assembly into microtubules. Tau has two ways of controlling microtubule stability: isoforms and phosphorylation.

另见[编辑]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ Shin RW, Iwaki T, Kitamoto T, Tateishi J. Hydrated autoclave pretreatment enhances tau immunoreactivity in formalin-fixed normal and Alzheimer's disease brain tissues. Lab. Invest. 1991.May, 64 (5): 693–702. PMID 1903170. 
  2. ^ Goedert M, Wischik CM, Crowther RA, Walker JE, Klug A. Cloning and sequencing of the cDNA encoding a core protein of the paired helical filament of Alzheimer disease: identification as the microtubule-associated protein tau. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1988.June, 85 (11): 4051–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.85.11.4051. PMC 280359. PMID 3131773. 
  3. ^ Goedert M, Spillantini MG, Jakes R, Rutherford D, Crowther RA. Multiple isoforms of human microtubule-associated protein tau: sequences and localization in neurofibrillary tangles of Alzheimer's disease. Neuron. 1989.October, 3 (4): 519–26. doi:10.1016/0896-6273(89)90210-9. PMID 2484340. 
  4. ^ Weingarten MD, Lockwood AH, Hwo SY, Kirschner MW. A protein factor essential for microtubule assembly. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1975.May, 72 (5): 1858–62. doi:10.1073/pnas.72.5.1858. PMC 432646. PMID 1057175. 
  5. ^ Harada A, Oguchi K, Okabe S, Kuno J, Terada S, Ohshima T, Sato-Yoshitake R, Takei Y, Noda T, Hirokawa N. Altered microtubule organization in small-calibre axons of mice lacking tau protein. Nature. 1994.June, 369 (6480): 488–91. doi:10.1038/369488a0. PMID 8202139. 

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外部链接[编辑]