依赖理论

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依赖理论(Dependency Theory),或称作依赖学派(Dependency School),是1960年代晚期由拉丁美洲学者所提出的一套国际关系发展经济学理论。它将世界划分为先进的中心国家与较落后的边陲国家,后者在世界体系中的地位使之受到中心国的盘剥,故得不到发展,或产生腐败等弊病。

基本理路[编辑]

关于中心/边陲的界定,其间的机制与效应等问题,学界至今没有定论,不过依赖理论的各流派中仍有共通的几个命题,简述如下:

  • 世界分成中心国家边陲国家伊曼纽·沃勒斯坦还进一步引入半边陲国家的概念。
  • 中心由工业国家构成,边陲国家则向中心国家出口原料,并从事劳力密集产业为主。
  • 边陲之所以为边陲,并非因为它是工业化浪潮的后进者(这是新古典主义经济学的主张),而是在世界市场上受到制约所致,外力包括跨国企业、国际组织(例如国际货币基金)等等代表中心国家利益的力量。
  • 因此边陲国家的落后源自上述不平等的依赖关系,中心国家则赖此关系维持较高的工资及贸易利益,并减弱国内的阶级矛盾。

准此,依赖理论对穷国开出的药方是走自主发展之路、节制外资,并根据国民的真正需求调整产业结构(例如许多穷国大量出口农产品,人民却有营养不足的问题)。部份学者更呼吁以社会革命出离依赖。

简史[编辑]

依赖理论首先是作为现代化理论的反面在1950-60年代出世的,其提倡者是阿根廷经济学家Raúl Prebisch。根据古典经济学,国际贸易会让各国达到比较优势,相互得益,但是Prebisch在拉丁美洲经济委员会研究拉丁美洲的实际发展,引出了相反的结论:穷国财富的减少与着富国财富的增加一致。Paul Baran根据马克思主义政治经济学完善了他的理论,此后各家蜂起。德国经济学家Andre Gunder Frank使之成为马克思主义的一支,Theotonio Dos Santos考虑边陲国对内及对外的关系,创建了“新依赖理论”。巴西前总统费尔南多·恩里克·卡多佐在流亡期间曾写过许多相关论著。伊曼纽·沃勒斯坦则进一步发展其中的马克思主义面向,称之为世界体系理论

争议[编辑]

依赖理论遭到自由市场的鼓吹者反击,他们主张依赖理论的药方将造成腐败及竞争不足等问题,印度亚洲四小龙的崛起也不合乎依赖理论的预测。另一些学者则指出亚洲四小龙都曾实施进口替代政策,美援的因素也不容忽视[1]

依赖发展理论是依赖理论的流派之一,它主张跨国资本能在穷国的内需市场上牟利,所以边陲也能得到部份的发展,但是这往往是以腐败或社会两极分化为代价的。

注记[编辑]

  1. ^ Hartman, John and Pamela B. Walters 1985: Dependence, military assistance and development: a cross national study, Politics and Society 14, 431-58 .

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外部链接[编辑]