美国法院

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美国法院美国联邦法院与各州或领地的州法院两系统所组成。美国的联邦法院是由美国联邦政府司法部门所构成,并依据美国宪法联邦法律来运作。美国各州与领地拥有个别的州/领地法院,并依据各自的州/领地宪法与州/领地法律来运作。

在联邦法律中的“美国法院”(Courts of the United States)一词专指美国联邦政府的联邦法院,而并不包括各州法院,这是因为美国的联邦制明确的将联邦与各州政府的运作分隔,因此各州可以自由的选择各式各样的法院系统,而不需要与联邦法院或其他州有着相同的系统。联邦法院除了专门法院外可分为三级。所有的州法院都至少分为了两级,而几乎所有州与联邦法院都有着“初审上诉终审”的三级系统。[1]少数的州有两个终审法院分别管理民事与刑事案件。

全美国98%的案件都是由各州的各级法院所审理。大部分的州将小型违规案件,例如交通违规,归属于拥有特别司法管辖权的法院;并将较严重的案件归属于拥有原属司法管辖权的法院。[2]美国联邦法院审理两个或以上的州之间的纠纷、违犯联邦法律、国际条约、美国宪法海洋商业法破产法等有关案件。[3]全美国内80%的案件为民事而20%为刑事案件。[2]民事案件通常包括民权专利权、以及社会安全保险,而刑事案件则包括逃漏税务责任、抢劫、伪造文书、以及毒品案件。[2]

美国法院常使用“巡回”一词。该词为英语“circuit”的直接翻译,其意义为地区之意。由于美国幅员广大人口稀少,因此不能广设法院,只能在重要地点设法院置法官。为了服务距离法院遥远地区民众的司法需求,法官必须离开法院所在地并“巡回”其司法管辖地区。此词因此使用至今,而今日的美国法官有时仍须要离开原法院到其司法管辖范围内的其他法院巡回审理案件。

以下为美国境内的法院列表。

美国联邦法院[编辑]

美国十二个上诉法院的管辖地区范围图。

以地理分配之司法管辖权的法院[编辑]

以专业事务分配之司法管辖权的法院[编辑]

过去的美国联邦法院[编辑]

各州法院[编辑]

  • 州最高法院
    • 州法院

阿拉巴马州[编辑]

阿拉巴马州法院包括:

位于阿拉巴马州内的联邦法院

位于阿拉巴马州内过去的联邦法院

阿拉斯加州[编辑]

阿拉斯加州法院包括:

位于阿拉斯加州内的联邦法院

亚利桑那州[编辑]

亚利桑那州法院包括:

位于亚利桑那州内的联邦法院

阿肯色州[编辑]

阿肯色州法院包括:

位于阿肯色州内的联邦法院

位于阿肯色州内过去的联邦法院

加利福尼亚州[编辑]

加利福尼亚州法院包括:

位于加州旧金山的加利福尼亚最高法院大厦

位于加利福尼亚州内的联邦法院

位于加利福尼亚州内过去的联邦法院

科罗拉多州[编辑]

科罗拉多州法院包括:

位于科罗拉多州内的联邦法院

康乃狄克州[编辑]

康乃狄克州法院包括:

位于康乃狄克州内的联邦法院

德拉瓦州[编辑]

德拉瓦州法院包括:

位于德拉瓦州内的联邦法院

佛罗里达州[编辑]

佛罗里达州法院包括:

位于佛罗里达州塔拉哈西的佛罗里达最高法院总部。

位于佛罗里达州内的联邦法院

位于佛罗里达州内过去的联邦法院

佐治亚州[编辑]

佐治亚州法院包括:

位于佐治亚州内的联邦法院

位于佐治亚州内过去的联邦法院

夏威夷州[编辑]

位于夏威夷州檀香山的夏威夷最高法院。

夏威夷州法院包括:

位于夏威夷州内的联邦法院

爱达荷州[编辑]

爱达荷州法院包括:

位于爱达荷州内的联邦法院

伊利诺伊州[编辑]

位于伊利诺伊州芝加哥得金斯联邦大楼(Dirksen Federal Building)的美国第七巡回上诉法院。

伊利诺伊州法院包括:

位于伊利诺伊州内的联邦法院

位于伊利诺伊州内过去的联邦法院

印第安那州[编辑]

File:E Ross Adair Bldg 2005.jpg
E·罗斯·阿达尔联邦大楼为美国印地安那北区地区法院伟恩堡分院所在地。

印第安那州法院包括:

位于印第安那州内的联邦法院

位于印第安那州内国去的联邦法院

艾奥瓦州[编辑]

艾奥瓦州法院包括:

位于艾奥瓦州内的联邦法院

位于艾奥瓦州内过去的联邦法院

堪萨斯州[编辑]

堪萨斯州法院包括:

位于堪萨斯州内的联邦法院

肯德基州[编辑]

肯德基州法院包括:

位于肯德基州内的联邦法院

位于肯德基州内过去的联邦法院

路易西安那州[编辑]

位于路易西安那州纽澳良的美国第五巡回上诉法院。

路易西安那州法院包括:

位于路易西安那州内的联邦法院

位于路易西安那州内过去的联邦法院

缅因州[编辑]

位于缅因州内的联邦法院

马里兰州[编辑]

位于马里兰州内的联邦法院

位于马里兰州内过去的联邦法院

麻塞诸塞州[编辑]

位于麻塞诸塞州波士顿的约翰·亚当斯法院大厦(John Adams Courthouse),为麻塞诸塞最高司法院麻塞诸塞上诉法院所在地。

司法院

行政法院

位于麻塞诸塞州内的联邦法院

密歇根州[编辑]

纽约州[编辑]

参考文献[编辑]

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参见[编辑]