入侵物種

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美國東南部受為日本藤物入侵,廣泛生長於喬治亞州亞特蘭大市,被視為入侵物種。

入侵物種Invasive species)是引進物種的一個子集。如果一個物種被人為引入一個其先前不曾自然存在過的地區,並具備了在無更多人為干預的情況下在當地發展成一定數量的能力,以至威脅到了當地生物的多樣性成為當地公害,就可稱之為「入侵物種」。

簡介[編輯]

雖然入侵物種經常被定義為被引進的並成為禍害的品種,但有些物種天生就能在特定的區域,在人類活動的影響下繁殖並成為當地的一個入侵品種。 澳大利亞東南部的雜色澳洲喜鵲(Pied Currawong)就是一個例子: 由於人類對當地景觀的改變,使得雜色澳洲喜鵲的數量在20世紀急劇增長。雜色澳洲喜鵲捕食其他小型鳥類的雛鳥,使得該地區其他小型鳥類數量銳減。在夏威夷,一種稱做"'ae'ae"的濕地植物(當地的假馬齒莧 )也被看成是一個有害物種---因為它們的快速增長覆蓋了原本用做保護Hawaiian stilt(Himantopus mexicanus knudseni)的淺水塘,使得這些區域不再適合這種瀕危鳥類的覓食. 當然,地球上所有的物種都有一個數量增減周期,一般來說這個都是在一定範圍內進行波動的。這類變化一般是由環境上的各種因素變化導致,而其中以由人類活動所帶來的地貌改變的影響顯得最為突出。

入侵條件[編輯]

所有物種都是競爭中求生存的,但入侵物種有着其獨特的特點使其超越本土物種。有時,這種優勢體現在生長速度和繁殖速率上,有時,物種間更加直接的相互作用。

然而研究者不認為這個有着標定入侵物種的代表性。86%的入侵物種可以由這些特徵來鑒別。另一項研究發現,入侵物種只佔了有這些特徵的物種中的很小的一部分,有這些特點的物種最終被認定為非入侵物種,從而需要其他的一些解釋。

通常,入侵物種的共同特點有:

  • 高生長速度
  • 強大繁殖能力
  • 快速蔓延的能力
  • 表現性彈性(可以改變生長模式以適應現有環境)
  • 可耐受各種環境
  • 一個很廣的食譜
  • 與人類有關

通常外來物種需要存活過種群低密度的時期,才有可能在新的地點變成入侵物種。種群數量很少的時候,外來物種很難繁殖並存活下來,所以一個物種也許需要很多次到達一個地點才可能在這裡存活。而人類的周期性的往返活動,如船隻在港口間的運輸和汽車上下高速路,給了這些物種更多的機會。

當外來物種可以在爭奪養料、陽光、空間、水或食物中戰勝土著種,它便可能變成入侵物種。如果這些物種是在強烈的競爭或是巨大捕食壓力中進化的,而新的環境中沒有競爭者,這些入侵者就可以很快的增長。對於一個所有資源都被充分利用的生態系統,入侵物種每一點獲利都是土著種的損失。然而,這種單方的競爭優越性導致的土著種最終滅絕並不是一蹴而就的,它們可以共存相當的一段時間,漸漸地當入侵物種的種群數量明顯提升,慢慢適應了環境之後,競爭優勢也變得明顯了。

入侵物種往往可以利用那些土著種無法利用的資源,比如依靠強健根系可以利用的深層水資源,可以在之前沒有物種的土壤類型中生存。刺山羊草(Aegilops triuncialis)被引進到加州的水保持度低,缺乏營養物質,高鎂鈣,且有重金屬毒性的土壤中。這種土壤中一般植物密度都很低,但是山羊草可以在這裡繁茂生長,排擠了這些土地中的土著種。

當物種使用化學或生物方式抑制競爭者生存時,這個過程就加速進行了。一種機制就是拮抗作用,即一種植物釋放化學物質使得周圍的土壤對於競爭物種無法生存。

改變生境的火災狀況是另一種促進方式。旱雀麥(Bromus tectorum)原產歐亞大陸,它不僅可以在火災之後快速繁殖擴散,還可以通過產生大量的乾燥碎屑增加火災頻率和強度,尤其在北美的火災常發的季節。在旱雀麥廣泛分佈的地區,它顯著的改變了當地的火災頻率以至於其他物種無法在這種高頻火災中存活下來,使得旱雀麥保持統治性並且不斷擴展。

對於環境的物理形貌改變也是促進的模式之一。

歷史觀點[編輯]

案例[編輯]

台灣福壽螺是最有名的入侵物種之一。原本從南美洲引進要做為食用螺類,但因口感不佳而被棄養丟於水溝,但反而開始大量繁殖,對於農作物造成危害。另外吳郭魚是從新加坡引進的,雖然是常見的食用魚類,但是放養於水庫湖泊的吳郭魚由於攻擊性強,逐漸排擠其他水生動物的生存空間。

生物學控制[編輯]

亞洲虎蚊Aedes albopictus)正在叮咬人類。

生物學控制就是一種生物控制另一種生物,即引進當前入侵生物的天敵,使用天敵進行數量的控制,但該種方法的主要問題來自於引進的生物可能成為新的入侵生物,對當地的生態環境進一步地破壞。

生物地理學評價[編輯]

階段 特性
0 正常
I 外來
II 引入
III 在該地區上數位及集中度屬於罕見
IVa 普遍但罕見
IVb 集中但未支配
V 集中和出現支配

生物地理學評價將入侵物種分為五類。

其他條目[編輯]

外部連結[編輯]

參考資料[編輯]

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