量子生物學

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量子生物學是利用量子理論來研究生命科學[1]的一門學科。該學科包含利用量子力學研究生物過程分子動態結構。利用量子生物學研究量子水平的分子動態結構和能量轉移,如果所得結果與宏觀的生物學現象相吻合且很難用其他學科的研究重複,則這一研究結果較為可信[2]

量子生物化學光合過程的量子研究已得到了可核查的重要的結果。尤其是光合作用中,對於俘獲光子後發生的分步的、對質子的量子式釋放,利用量子生物學的理論,已獲得顯著的研究進展(相關理論涉及到較為複雜的光系統II)。此外,實驗和理論的發現都支持酶促反應中包含量子穿隧機制。將能量轉化為化學能(可用於化學轉化)的生物學過程在實質上都是量子力學過程。這些過程包含化學反應光俘獲電子激發態的形成、激發能的轉移和化學過程(如光合作用及細胞呼吸)中電子及質子(離子)的轉移[3]。量子生物學以量子力學效應為根據,藉助數學計算,對生物學相互作用進行模擬[4]奧地利出生的量子物理學家數理生物學家埃爾溫·薛定諤早在1946年就提出了用量子理論研究遺傳系統的需求,理論生物學家羅伯特·羅森在1961年接着給出了一份詳細、正式的研究量子遺傳學的辦法。在這方面的一個仍未解決的存在爭議的問題是:量子效應生物系統中的非平凡/通用角色(即不受限於分子性質)究竟是什麼?[5][6][7]然而,新近關於轉錄的研究與轉錄酶對於相干態雙鏈DNA量子信息處理是一致的[8][9]

研究內容[編輯]

相關量子過程被研究的生物學現象主要包括對輻射的頻率特異性吸收(出現在光合作用[10]視覺系統等內)[11]化學能機械能的轉化[12]動物磁感受[13]及許多細胞過程中的布朗馬達[14]。該領域還在積極地研究磁場鳥類導航的量子分析[15]並可能為許多生物體晝夜節律生理節律)的研究提供線索[16]

最近的研究已經確定了在光合作用的光收穫階段,不同的色素的激發態之間的量子相干性糾纏[17][18]儘管這一階段的光合作用效率非常高,但是目前仍不清楚這些量子效應究竟如何,或者是否是生物學上相關的。[19]

參見[編輯]

參考資料[編輯]

  • W.G. Cooper, "Evidence for transcriptase quantum processing implies entanglement and decoherence of superposition proton states." BioSystems, 97, pp. 73–89, 2009.
  • W.G. Cooper, "Necessity of quantum coherence to account for the spectrum of time-dependent mutations exhibited bacteriophage T4." Biochem. Genet. 47, 892, 2009; doi:10.1007/s10528-009-9293-8.
  • F. H. Thaheld, "An interdisciplinary approach to certain fundamental issues in the fields of physics and biology: towards a unified theory" BioSystems, 80, pp. 41–56, 2005.
  • J. Gilmore and R. H. McKenzie, "Spin boson models for quantum decoherence of electronic excitations of biomolecules and quantum dots in a solvent," Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 17(10), pp. 1735–1746, 2005.
  • S. Hameroff and J. Tuszynski, "Quantum states in proteins and protein assemblies: the essence of life?" Proc. SPIE Fluctuations and Noise in Biological, Biophysical, and Biomedical Systems II, Eds. D. Abbott, S.M. Bezrukov, A. Der, and A. Sánchez, 5467, pp. 27–41, Canary Islands, 2004. p
  • P.C.W. Davies, "Does quantum mechanics play a non-trivial role in life?" BioSystems, 78, pp. 69–79, 2004.
  • A. F. Rocha, E. Massad and F. A. B. Coutinho, "Can the human brain do quantum computing?" Medical Hypotheses, 63, pp. 895–899, 2004.
  • A. U. Igamberdiev, "Quantum computation, non-demolition measurements, and reflective control in living systems," BioSystems, 77, pp. 47–56, 2004.
  • S. R. Hameroff, "A new theory of the origin of cancer: quantum coherent entanglement, centrioles, mitosis, and differentiation," BioSystems, 77, pp. 119–136, 2004.
  • Z.-X. Liang and J. P. Klinman, "Structural bases of hydrogen tunneling in enzymes: progress and puzzles," Current Opinion in Structural Biology, 14, pp. 468–655, 2004.
  • P.C.W. Davies, "Emergent biological principles and the computational properties of the universe," Complexity, 10(2), pp. 11–15, 2004.

Cambridge, 1946.

  • C. W. Smith, "Quanta and coherence effects in water and living systems," The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 10(1), pp. 69–78, 2004.
  • L. Hackermuller, S. Uttenthaler, K. Hornberger, E. Reiger, B. Brezger, A. Zeilinger, and M. Arndt, "Wave nature of biomolecules and fluorofullerenes," Physical Review Letters, 91(9), 090408, 2003.
  • O. Nariz, M. Arndt, and A. Zeilinger, "Quantum interference experiments with large molecules," American Journal of Physics, 71(4), pp. 319–325, 2003.
  • S. Axelsson, "Perspectives on handedness, life and physics," Medical Hypotheses, 61(2), pp. 267–274, 2003.
  • S. R. Hameroff, A. Nip, M. Porter, and J. Tuszynski, "Conduction pathways in microtubules, biological quantum computation, and consciousness," BioSystems, 64, pp. 146–168, 2002.
  • V. Helms, "Electronic excitations of biomolecules studied by quantum chemistry," Current Opinion in Structural Biology, 12, pp. 169–175, 2002.
  • S. M. Hitchcock, "Photosynthetic quantum computers," arXiv:quant-ph/0108087, 2001.
  • V. Gogonea, D. Suarez, A. van der Vaart and K. M. Merz, "New developments in applying quantum mechanics to proteins," Current Opinion in Structural Biology, 11, pp. 217–223, 2001.
  • M. Kameyama, "Quantum cellular biology: a curious example of a cat," Medical Hypotheses, 57(3), pp. 358–360, 2001.
  • M. Tegmark, "Why the brain is probably not a quantum computer," Information Sciences, 128, pp. 155–179, 2000.
  • K. Matsuno, "Is there a biology of quantum information? ," BioSystems, 55, pp. 39–46, 2000.
  • M. Tegmark, "The importance of quantum decoherence in brain processes," Physical Review E, 61(4), pp. 4194–4206, 2000.
  • H. S. Green, "Measurement and the observer," Chapter 8 in Information Theory and Quantum Physics: Physical Foundations for Understanding the Conscious Process, Springer, pp. 172–209, 2000.
  • E. Bieberich, "Probing quantum coherence in a biological system by means of DNA amplification," BioSystems, 57, pp. 109–124, 2000.
  • A. Kohen and J. Klinman, "Hydrogen tunneling in biology," Chemistry and Biology, 6, pp. R191-R198, 1999.
  • W. J. Meggs, "Biological homing: hypothesis for a quantum effect that leads to the existence of life," Medical Hypotheses, 51, pp. 503–506, 1998.
  • M. Tegmark, "Does the universe in fact contain almost no information?" Foundations of Physics Letters, 9(1), pp. 25–42, 1996.
  • S. Hameroff and R. Penrose, "Orchestrated reduction of quantum coherence in brain microtubules: A model for consciousness," Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, 40, pp. 453–480, 1996.
  • D. V. Nanopoulos, "Theory of brain function, quantum mechanics and superstrings," arXiv: hep-ph/950374, 1995.


注釋[編輯]

  1. ^ Tae-Chang Kim, Eric Chaisson. Science, Education and Future Generations. Taylor & Francis Ltd. 1999: 26. ISBN 978-9057005381. 
  2. ^ Ian Brown, Zengliang Yu, Thiraphat Vilaithong. Introduction to Ion Beam Biotechnology. Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 2005: 97. ISBN 978-0387255316. 
  3. ^ Quantum Biology. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Theoretical and Computational Biophysics Group. http://www.ks.uiuc.edu/Research/quantum_biology/
  4. ^ http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/01/070116133617.htm Science Daily Quantum Biology: Powerful Computer Models Reveal Key Biological Mechanism Retrieved Oct 14, 2007
  5. ^ H.M. Wiseman, J. Eisert Nontrivial quantum effects in biology: A skeptical physicists' view arXiv:0705.1232v2 [physics.gen-ph]
  6. ^ Davies PC.Does quantum mechanics play a non-trivial role in life? Biosystems. 2004 Dec;78(1-3):69-79.
  7. ^ Ogryzko VV. Erwin Schrödinger, Francis Crick and epigenetic stability.Biol Direct. 2008 Apr 17;3:15.[1] [2]
  8. ^ Cooper WG.Evidence for transcriptase quantum processing implies entanglement and decoherence of superposition proton states. BioSystems. 2009 Aug; 97:73-89.doi:10.1016/j.biosystems.2009.04.010
  9. ^ Cooper WG. Necessity of quantum coherence to account for the spectrum of time-dependent mutations exhibited by bacteriophage T4. Biochem. Genet. 2009 Oct; doi:10.1007/s10528-009-9293-8
  10. ^ Quantum Secrets of Photosynthesis Revealed
  11. ^ Garab, G. Photosynthesis: Mechanisms and Effects: Proceedings of the XIth International Congress on Photosynthesis. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 1999. ISBN 978-0792355472. 
  12. ^ Levine, Raphael D. Molecular Reaction Dynamics. Cambridge University Press. 2005: 16–18. ISBN 978-0521842761. 
  13. ^ Binhi, Vladimir N. Magnetobiology: Underlying Physical Problems. Academic Press. 2002: 14–16. ISBN 978-0121000714. 
  14. ^ Harald Krug, Harald Brune, Gunter Schmid, Ulrich Simon, Viola Vogel, Daniel Wyrwa, Holger Ernst, Armin Grunwald, Werner Grunwald, Heinrich Hofmann. Nanotechnology: Assessment and Perspectives. Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg GmbH & Co. K. 2006: 197–240. ISBN 978-3540328193. 
  15. ^ http://rodgers.org.uk/research/ Chris Rodgers, The Spin Chemistry of Bird Navigation 2005
  16. ^ http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/08/070827174303.htm Math Model For Circadian Rhythm Created, ScienceDaily, August 30, 2007
  17. ^ Sarovar, Mohan; Ishizaki, Akihito; Fleming, Graham R.; Whaley, K. Birgitta. Quantum entanglement in photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes. Nature Physics. 2010, 6 (6): 462–467. arXiv:0905.3787. Bibcode:2010NatPh...6..462S. doi:10.1038/nphys1652. 
  18. ^ Engel GS, Calhoun TR, Read EL, Ahn TK, Mancal T, Cheng YC et al. Evidence for wavelike energy transfer through quantum coherence in photosynthetic systems.. Nature. 2007, 446 (7137): 782–6. Bibcode:2007Natur.446..782E. doi:10.1038/nature05678. PMID 17429397. 
  19. ^ Scholes GS. Quantum-Coherent Electronic Energy Transfer: Did Nature Think of It First?. Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters. 2010, 1: 2–8. doi:10.1021/jz900062f. 

擴展閱讀[編輯]

  • Atomistic approaches in modern biology : from quantum chemistry to molecular simulations by Markus Reiher; L Bertini. Berlin ; New York : Springer, 2007. ISBN 978-3-540-38082-5
  • Molecular structure and dynamics in biology. by Roman Osman; Guiliano Alagona; Caterina Ghio; International Society for Quantum Biology and Pharmacology.Wiley, 1999. OCLC: 82140679
  • Theoretical chemistry in biology : from molecular structure to functional mechanisms. by Peter Kollman; Harel Weinstein John Wiley and Sons, 1998. OCLC: 80429626

外部連結[編輯]