塞爾柱帝國

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Büyük Selçuklu Devleti
دولت سلجوقیان
Dawlat-i Saljūqiān
大塞爾柱帝國
帝國
1037年-1194年

國旗

大塞爾柱位置圖
1092年處於鼎盛時期的大塞爾柱帝國
首都 內沙布爾
(1037–1043)
雷伊
(1043–1051)
伊斯法罕
(1051–1118)
哈馬丹西都 (1118–1194)
梅爾夫東都 (1118–1153)
常用語言
政體 君主制
蘇丹或沙阿
- 1037–1063 圖格魯勒一世(首)
- 1174–1194 圖格里爾三世(末)[5][6]
歷史
 - 圖格魯勒建國 1037年
 - 花剌子模建國[7] 1194年
面積
- 1080年估計 3,900,000 平方公里
繼承自
繼承國
Ghaznavid Empire 975 - 1187 (AD).PNG 伽色尼王國
Buyids 970.png 白益王朝
SallaridMapHistoryofIran.png Sallarid dynasty
JustinianusI.jpg 拜占庭帝國
KakuyidMapHistoryofIran.png Kakuyids
古爾王朝 Ghurids1200.png
花剌子模 Khwarezmian Empire 1190 - 1220 (AD).PNG
魯姆蘇丹國 Blank.png
阿尤布王朝 Flag of Ayyubid Dynasty.svg
Atabegs of Azerbaijan Blank.png
Burid dynasty Blank.png
贊吉王朝 Blank.png
達尼什曼德王朝 Blank.png
阿爾圖格王朝 Blank.png
薩爾圖吉王朝 Blank.png
今屬於
系列條目
土耳其歷史
土耳其國旗
土耳其主題 土耳其主題首頁
Faravahar background
大伊朗地區歷史
現代國家興起前
現代之前

大塞爾柱帝國現代土耳其語:Büyük Selçuklu Devleti;波斯語دولت سلجوقیان)是中世紀時期的突厥-波斯[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15]遜尼派伊斯蘭帝國,由烏古斯人中的一支發展而來[16],領土範圍東至興都庫什山脈,西至東部安納托利亞,北至中亞,南至波斯灣。塞爾柱人由鹹海發跡,隨後挺進呼羅珊,再入波斯地區,最終征服東安納托利亞。

11世紀前半葉,塞爾柱王朝的創立者塞爾柱·貝格為帝國的建立打下了基礎。塞爾柱·貝格的父親為烏古斯葉護國的高官,他本人也是王朝和帝國名稱的由來。1037年,圖格魯勒·貝格正式創立帝國。塞爾柱人統一了支離分裂的東部伊斯蘭世界,並在第一次第二次十字軍東征中扮演了重要的角色。塞爾柱帝國在文化[17][18][19]和語言[10][20][21][22][23]上表現為高度波斯化[10][11][12][13],並在突厥-波斯文化的發展傳承上具有十分重要的地位[24],同時還將波斯文化傳播至安納托利亞[25][26]。突厥部落在帝國西北部的戰略性定居大大促進了這些地區的突厥化[27]

歷史[編輯]

建立[編輯]

於11世紀由塞爾柱家族統率烏古斯人諸部在西亞建立。

第一次十字軍東征[編輯]

第一次十字軍東征之前,塞爾柱帝國分裂為若干小國。基利傑·阿爾斯蘭一世英語Kilij Arslan I統治著安納托利亞的魯姆蘇丹國突突什一世英語Tutush I則執掌敘利亞。突突什一世於1095年死後,其子法赫爾·穆爾克·拉德溫英語Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan杜卡克英語Duqaq分別繼承了阿勒頗大馬士革,其後內部一直分裂並且相互對立。[28]

分裂[編輯]

1092年馬立克沙和尼扎姆·穆勒克相繼逝世後,王室諸子爭位,塞爾柱帝國分裂成許多小王朝,其中存在時間最長的是與東羅馬帝國相鄰的羅姆蘇丹國。1243年,蒙古帝國入侵小亞細亞,在科塞達克將羅姆蘇丹國軍擊潰,從此羅姆蘇丹國淪為蒙古伊兒汗國的藩屬。1299年羅姆蘇丹國發生分裂,1307年從歷史記錄上消失。

參考資料[編輯]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Savory, R. M. and Roger Savory, Introduction to Islamic civilisation, (Cambridge University Press, 1976 ), 82.
  2. ^ Black, Edwin, Banking on Baghdad: inside Iraq's 7,000-year history of war, profit and conflict, (John Wiley and sons, 2004), 38.
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 C.E. Bosworth, "Turkish Expansion towards the west" in UNESCO HISTORY OF HUMANITY, Volume IV, titled "From the Seventh to the Sixteenth Century", UNESCO Publishing / Routledge, p. 391: "While the Arabic language retained its primacy in such spheres as law, theology and science, the culture of the Seljuk court and secular literature within the sultanate became largely Persianized; this is seen in the early adoption of Persian epic names by the Seljuk rulers (Qubād, Kay Khusraw and so on) and in the use of Persian as a literary language (Turkish must have been essentially a vehicle for everyday speech at this time)
  4. ^ Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world, Ed. Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie, (Elsevier Ltd., 2009), 1110;Oghuz Turkic is first represented by Old Anatolian Turkish which was a subordinate written medium until the end of the Seljuk rule.".
  5. ^ A New General Biographical Dictionary, Vol.2, Ed. Hugh James Rose, (London, 1853), 214.
  6. ^ Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (New Brunswick:Rutgers University Press, 1988), 167.
  7. ^ Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (New Brunswick:Rutgers University Press, 1988),159,161; "In 1194, Togrul III would succumb to the onslaught of the Khwarizmian Turks, who were destined at last to succeed the Seljuks to the empire of the Middle East."
  8. ^ Aḥmad of Niǧde's "al-Walad al-Shafīq" and the Seljuk Past, A. C. S. Peacock, Anatolian Studies, Vol. 54, (2004), 97; With the growth of Seljuk power in Rum, a more highly developed Muslim cultural life, based on the Persianate culture of the Great Seljuk court, was able to take root in Anatolia.
  9. ^ Meisami, Julie Scott, Persian Historiography to the End of the Twelfth Century, (Edinburgh University Press, 1999), 143; Nizam al-Mulk also attempted to organise the Saljuq administration according to the Persianate Ghaznavid model..
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 10.2 M.A. Amir-Moezzi, "Shahrbanu", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK): "... here one might bear in mind that non-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia rather than to Turkmen heroes or Muslim saints ..."
  11. ^ 11.0 11.1 Josef W. Meri, "Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia", Routledge, 2005, p. 399
  12. ^ 12.0 12.1 Michael Mandelbaum, "Central Asia and the World", Council on Foreign Relations (May 1994), p. 79
  13. ^ 13.0 13.1 Jonathan Dewald, "Europe 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World", Charles Scribner's Sons, 2004, p. 24: "Turcoman armies coming from the East had driven the Byzantines out of much of Asia Minor and established the Persianized sultanate of the Seljuks."
  14. ^ Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 161,164; "..renewed the Seljuk attempt to found a great Turko-Persian empire in eastern Iran..", "It is to be noted that the Seljuks, those Turkomans who became sultans of Persia, did not Turkify Persia-no doubt because they did not wish to do so. On the contrary, it was they who voluntarily became Persians and who, in the manner of the great old Sassanid kings, strove to protect the Iranian populations from the plundering of Ghuzz bands and save Iranian culture from the Turkoman menace."
  15. ^ Possessors and possessed: museums, archaeology, and the visualization of history in the late Ottoman Empire; By Wendy M. K. Shaw; Published by University of California Press, 2003, ISBN 0520233352, 9780520233355; p. 5.
  16. ^
    • Jackson, P. Review: The History of the Seljuq Turkmens: The History of the Seljuq Turkmens. Journal of Islamic Studies (Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies). 2002, 13 (1): 75–76. doi:10.1093/jis/13.1.75. 
    • Bosworth, C. E. (2001). Notes on Some Turkish Names in Abu 'l-Fadl Bayhaqi's Tarikh-i Mas'udi. Oriens, Vol. 36, 2001 (2001), pp. 299-313.
    • Dani, A. H., Masson, V. M. (Eds), Asimova, M. S. (Eds), Litvinsky, B. A. (Eds), Boaworth, C. E. (Eds). (1999). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (Pvt. Ltd).
    • Hancock, I. (2006). ON ROMANI ORIGINS AND IDENTITY. The Romani Archives and Documentation Center. The University of Texas at Austin.
    • Asimov, M. S., Bosworth, C. E. (eds.). (1998). History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol. IV: The Age of Achievement: AD 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century, Part One: The Historical, Social and Economic Setting. Multiple History Series. Paris: UNESCO Publishing.
    • Dani, A. H., Masson, V. M. (Eds), Asimova, M. S. (Eds), Litvinsky, B. A. (Eds), Boaworth, C. E. (Eds). (1999). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (Pvt. Ltd).
  17. ^ C.E. Bosworth, "Turkmen Expansion towards the west" in UNESCO HISTORY OF HUMANITY, Volume IV, titled "From the Seventh to the Sixteenth Century", UNESCO Publishing / Routledge, p. 391.
  18. ^ Mehmed Fuad Koprulu's, "Early Mystics in Turkish Literature", Translated by Gary Leiser and Robert Dankoff , Routledge, 2006, pg 149.
  19. ^ Stephen P. Blake, "Shahjahanabad: The Sovereign City in Mughal India, 1639-1739". Cambridge University Press, 1991. pg 123: "For the Seljuks and Il-Khanids in Iran it was the rulers rather than the conquered who were "Persianized and Islamicized"
  20. ^ O.Özgündenli, "Persian Manuscripts in Ottoman and Modern Turkish Libraries", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK)
  21. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica, "Seljuq", Online Edition, (LINK): "... Because the Turkish Seljuqs had no Islamic tradition or strong literary heritage of their own, they adopted the cultural language of their Persian instructors in Islam. Literary Persian thus spread to the whole of Iran, and the Arabic language disappeared in that country except in works of religious scholarship ..."
  22. ^ M. Ravandi, "The Seljuq court at Konya and the Persianisation of Anatolian Cities", in Mesogeios (Mediterranean Studies), vol. 25-6 (2005), pp. 157-69
  23. ^ F. Daftary, "Sectarian and National Movements in Iran, Khorasan, and Trasoxania during Umayyad and Early Abbasid Times", in History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol 4, pt. 1; edited by M.S. Asimov and C.E. Bosworth; UNESCO Publishing, Institute of Ismaili Studies: "... Not only did the inhabitants of Khurasan not succumb to the language of the nomadic invaders, but they imposed their own tongue on them. The region could even assimilate the Turkic Ghaznavids and Seljuks (eleventh and twelfth centuries), the Timurids (fourteenth–fifteenth centuries), and the Qajars (nineteenth–twentieth centuries) ..."
  24. ^ "The Turko-Persian tradition features Persian culture patronized by Turkic rulers"." See Daniel Pipes: "The Event of Our Era: Former Soviet Muslim Republics Change the Middle East" in Michael Mandelbaum, "Central Asia and the World: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkemenistan and the World", Council on Foreign Relations, p. 79. Exact statement: "In Short, the Turko-Persian tradition featured Persian culture patronized by Turcophone rulers."
  25. ^ Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 574.
  26. ^ Bingham, Woodbridge, Hilary Conroy and Frank William Iklé, History of Asia, Vol.1, (Allyn and Bacon, 1964), 98.
  27. ^
    • Golden, P. B., Harrasowitz, O.(1992) An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples. pg 386.
    • Perry, J. Iran & the Caucasus, Vol. 5, (2001), pp. 193-200. THE HISTORICAL ROLE OF TURKISH IN RELATION TO PERSIAN OF IRAN
    • Bosworth, C.E. Arran in Encyclopedia Iranica
    • According to Fridrik Thordarson, "Iranian influence on Caucasian languages. There is general agreement that Iranian languages predominated in Azerbaijan from the 1st millennium b.c. until the advent of the Turks in a.d. the 11th century (see Menges, pp. 41-42; Camb. Hist. Iran IV, pp. 226-28, and VI, pp. 950-52). The process of Turkicization was essentially complete by the beginning of the 16th century, and today Iranian languages are spoken in only a few scattered settlements in the area."
  28. ^ Holt 1989,第11, 14–15頁.