威權主義

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權威主義威權主義英語Authoritarianism)指政府要求人民絕對服從其權威的原則,而不是個人的思想和行動自由。政府上的威權主義指權力集中於單一領袖或一小撮精英。威權領導者在行使權力時常不考慮現有法律而任意,公民也通常無法自由競爭的選舉來替換之。

不少打壓反對派政黨或其他替代政治團體與權力爭奪與統治集團的自由是有限或不存在的獨裁政權都是如此的威權政體權威政體Authoritarian regime)來說,有關於設立反對黨或其他政治組織不是有限不然就是根本不存在,威權主義因而站在民主的對立面[1]

在不同學術領域如新聞學行政學經濟學心理學管理學社會學,威權主義概念的中文專業用詞或有差異如獨裁主義集權主義集權制度專制主義權威性格威權性格[2]

威權主義也異於極權主義,因為威權政府通常沒有高度發展的指導意識型態,在社會組織方面多元化,並且缺乏動員全國力量,追求國家目標[1]

參見[編輯]

參考文獻[編輯]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Authoritarianism//Encyclopædia Britannica. 大英線上英文版. 2013. "authoritarianism, principle of blind submission to authority, as opposed to individual freedom of thought and action. In government, authoritarianism denotes any political system that concentrates power in the hands of a leader or a small elite that is not constitutionally responsible to the body of the people. Authoritarian leaders often exercise power arbitrarily and without regard to existing bodies of law, and they usually cannot be replaced by citizens choosing freely among various competitors in elections. The freedom to create opposition political parties or other alternative political groupings with which to compete for power with the ruling group is either limited or nonexistent in authoritarian regimes" 
  2. ^ 獨裁主義;權威主義 authoritarianism//雙語詞彙資料庫 學術名詞資訊網 辭書資訊網. 國家教育研究院. 2012.