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標準狀況

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標準狀況英語standard temperature and pressure, STP標準溫度與標準壓力),簡稱「標況」。由於地表各處的溫度壓力皆不同,即使是同一地點的溫度壓強也隨測量時間不同而相異,因此為研究方便,制定出描述物質特徵的標準狀況:

在中國大陸的高中課本中,0 ℃(273.15 K)、101kPa被定義為標準狀況。1莫耳的理想氣體在0℃、101kPa下佔有的體積為22.413996(39)L(CODATA 2002),這也是IUPAC(以前使用的定義)中的情況。

歷史上由巴黎制定的通行歐洲的舊制標準如下:

現在也使用T = 293.15 K ≙ 20 °C 空氣密度ρ = 1.204 kg/m³.

化學生物化學中另外還包括定義的觀察反應物濃度,一般情況下為1mol/L(1 M)。在生物化學中只有質子例外(H+)。限定pH為7,即10-7 mol/l H+離子濃度用於准生理條件描述,肌體條件,細胞內部條件等。

標準狀況參考條件
溫度 絕對壓力 相對濕度 出版或創立者
°C kPa % RH
0 100.000   IUPAC(正在使用的定義)
0 101.325   IUPAC(以前使用的定義)NIST[1], ISO 10780[2]
15 101.325 0[3][4] ICAO's ISA[3] ISO 13443,[4] EEA[5] EGIA[6]
20 101.325   EPA[7] NIST[8]
25 101.325   EPA[9]
25 100.000   SATP[10]
20 100.000 0 CAGI[11]
15 100.000   SPE[12]
°F psi  % RH
60 14.696   SPE,[12] U.S. OSHA[13] SCAQMD[14]
60 14.73   EGIA,[6] OPEC[15] U.S. EIA[16]
59 14.503 78 U.S. Army Standard Metro[17][18]
59 14.696 60 ISO 2314, ISO 3977-2[19]
°F in Hg  % RH
70 29.92 0 AMCA[20][21] air density = 0.075 lbm/ft³. This AMCA standard applies only to air.

注釋:

  • EGIA:加拿大電力和燃氣檢驗法
  • SATP:標準的環境壓力和溫度
  • SCAQMD:加州南海岸空氣質量管理區

參看[編輯]

參考資料[編輯]

  1. ^ NIST. NIST Standard Reference Database 7 – NIST Electron and Positron Stopping Powers of Materials Database. 1989 [08-07-25]. "If you want the program to treat the material as an ideal gas, the density will be assumed given by M/V, where M is the gram molecular weight of the gas and V is the mol volume of 22414 cm3 at standard conditions(0 deg C and 1 atm)." 
  2. ^ ISO, ISO 10780:1994 : Stationary source emissions - Measurement of velocity and volume flowrate of gas streams in ducts, 1994 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Robert C. Weast (Editor). Handbook of Physics and Chemistry 56th Edition. CRC Press. 1975: F201–F206. ISBN 0-87819-455-X. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 "Natural gas – Standard reference conditions", ISO 13443, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland  ISO Standards Catalogue
  5. ^ "Extraction, First Treatment and Loading of Liquid & Gaseous Fossil Fuels", Emission Inventory Guidebook B521, Activities 050201 - 050303, September 1999, European Environmental Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark  Emission Inventory Guidebook
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 "Electricity and Gas Inspection Act", SOR/86-131(defines a set of standard conditions for Imperial units and a different set for metric units) Canadian Laws
  7. ^ "Standards of Performance for New Sources", 40 CFR--Protection of the Environment, Chapter I, Part 60, Section 60.2, 1990  New Source Performance Standards
  8. ^ "Design and Uncertainty for a PVTt Gas Flow Standard", Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Vol.108, Number 1, 2003  NIST Journal
  9. ^ "National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards", 40 CFR--Protection of the Environment, Chapter I, Part 50, Section 50.3, 1998  National Ambient Air Standards
  10. ^ "Table of Chemical Thermodynamic Properties", National Bureau of Standards(NBS),Journal of Physics and Chemical Reference Data, 1982, Vol. 11, Supplement 2.
  11. ^ "Glossary", 2002, Compressed Air and Gas Institute, Cleveland, OH, USA  Glossary
  12. ^ 12.0 12.1 The SI Metric System of Units and SPE Metric Standard 1984, Richardson, TX, USA(Notes for Table 2.3 on page 25 define standard cubic foot and standard cubic meter)
  13. ^ "Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases" and "Storage and Handling of Anhydrous Ammonia", 29 CFR--Labor, Chapter XVII--Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Part 1910, Sect. 1910.110 and 1910.111, 1993  Storage/Handling of LPG
  14. ^ "Rule 102, Definition of Terms(Standard Conditions)", Amended December 2004, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Los Angeles, California, USA  SCAQMD Rule 102
  15. ^ "Annual Statistical Bulletin", 2004, Editor-in-chief: Dr. Omar Ibrahim, Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, Vienna, Austria  OPEC Statistical Bulletin
  16. ^ "Natural Gas Annual 2004", DOE/EIA-0131(04),December 2005, U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Washington, D.C., USA  Natural Gas Annual 2004
  17. ^ Sierra Bullets L.P. Chapter 3 – Effects of Altitude and Atmospheric Conditions. Rifle and Handgun Reloading Manual, 5th Edition. "Effects of Altitude and Atmospheric Conditions", Exterior Ballistics Section, Sierra's "Rifle and Handgun Reloading Manual, 5th Edition", Sedalia, MO, USA  Exterior Ballistics
  18. ^ The pressure is specified as 750 mmHg. However, the mmHg is temperature dependant, as mercury expands as temperature goes up. Here the values for the 0-20 °C range are given.
  19. ^ "Gas turbines – Procurement – Part 2: Standard reference conditions and ratings", ISO 3977-2:1997 and "Gas turbines - Acceptance tests", ISO 2314:1989, Edition 2, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland ISO
  20. ^ ANSI/AMCA Standard 210, "Laboratory Methods Of Testing Fans for Aerodynamic Performance Rating", as implied here: http://www.greenheck.com/pdf/centrifugal/Plug.pdf when accessed on October 17, 2007
  21. ^ The standard is given as 29.92 inHg at an unspecified temperature. This most likely corresponds to a standard pressure of 101.325 kPa, converted into ~29.921 inHg at 32 °F)

外部連結[編輯]