標準狀況

維基百科,自由的百科全書
前往: 導覽搜尋

標準狀況standard temperature and pressure, STP標準溫度與標準壓力),簡稱「標況」由於地表各處的溫度壓強皆不同,即使是同一地點的溫度壓強也隨測量時間不同而相異,因此為研究方便,制定出描述物質特徵的標準狀況:

歷史上由巴黎制定的通行歐洲的舊制標準如下:

現在也使用T = 293.15 K ≙ 20 °C 空氣密度ρ = 1.204 kg/m³.

化學生物化學中另外還包括定義的觀察反應物濃度,一般情況下為1mol/L(1 M)。在生物化學中只有質子例外(H+)。限定pH為7,即10-7 mol/l H+離子濃度用於准生理條件描述,肌體條件,細胞內部條件等。

標準狀況參考條件
溫度 絕對壓力 相對濕度 出版或創立者
°C kPa % RH
0 100.000   IUPAC(正在使用的定義)
0 101.325   IUPAC(以前使用的定義)NIST[1], ISO 10780[2]
15 101.325 0[3][4] ICAO's ISA[3] ISO 13443,[4] EEA[5] EGIA[6]
20 101.325   EPA[7] NIST[8]
25 101.325   EPA[9]
25 100.000   SATP[10]
20 100.000 0 CAGI[11]
15 100.000   SPE[12]
°F psi  % RH
60 14.696   SPE,[12] U.S. OSHA[13] SCAQMD[14]
60 14.73   EGIA,[6] OPEC[15] U.S. EIA[16]
59 14.503 78 U.S. Army Standard Metro[17][18]
59 14.696 60 ISO 2314, ISO 3977-2[19]
°F in Hg  % RH
70 29.92 0 AMCA[20][21] air density = 0.075 lbm/ft³. This AMCA standard applies only to air.

注釋:

  • EGIA:加拿大電力和燃氣檢驗法
  • SATP:標準的環境壓力和溫度
  • SCAQMD:加州南海岸空氣質量管理區

參看[編輯]

參考資料[編輯]

  1. ^ NIST. NIST Standard Reference Database 7 – NIST Electron and Positron Stopping Powers of Materials Database. 1989 [08-07-25]. "If you want the program to treat the material as an ideal gas, the density will be assumed given by M/V, where M is the gram molecular weight of the gas and V is the mol volume of 22414 cm3 at standard conditions(0 deg C and 1 atm)." 
  2. ^ ISO, ISO 10780:1994 : Stationary source emissions - Measurement of velocity and volume flowrate of gas streams in ducts. 1994 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Robert C. Weast (Editor). Handbook of Physics and Chemistry 56th Edition. CRC Press. 1975: F201–F206. ISBN 0-87819-455-X. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 "Natural gas – Standard reference conditions", ISO 13443, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland  ISO Standards Catalogue
  5. ^ "Extraction, First Treatment and Loading of Liquid & Gaseous Fossil Fuels", Emission Inventory Guidebook B521, Activities 050201 - 050303, September 1999, European Environmental Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark  Emission Inventory Guidebook
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 "Electricity and Gas Inspection Act", SOR/86-131(defines a set of standard conditions for Imperial units and a different set for metric units) Canadian Laws
  7. ^ "Standards of Performance for New Sources", 40 CFR--Protection of the Environment, Chapter I, Part 60, Section 60.2, 1990  New Source Performance Standards
  8. ^ "Design and Uncertainty for a PVTt Gas Flow Standard", Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Vol.108, Number 1, 2003  NIST Journal
  9. ^ "National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards", 40 CFR--Protection of the Environment, Chapter I, Part 50, Section 50.3, 1998  National Ambient Air Standards
  10. ^ "Table of Chemical Thermodynamic Properties", National Bureau of Standards(NBS),Journal of Physics and Chemical Reference Data, 1982, Vol. 11, Supplement 2.
  11. ^ "Glossary", 2002, Compressed Air and Gas Institute, Cleveland, OH, USA  Glossary
  12. ^ 12.0 12.1 The SI Metric System of Units and SPE Metric Standard 1984, Richardson, TX, USA(Notes for Table 2.3 on page 25 define standard cubic foot and standard cubic meter)
  13. ^ "Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases" and "Storage and Handling of Anhydrous Ammonia", 29 CFR--Labor, Chapter XVII--Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Part 1910, Sect. 1910.110 and 1910.111, 1993  Storage/Handling of LPG
  14. ^ "Rule 102, Definition of Terms(Standard Conditions)", Amended December 2004, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Los Angeles, California, USA  SCAQMD Rule 102
  15. ^ "Annual Statistical Bulletin", 2004, Editor-in-chief: Dr. Omar Ibrahim, Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, Vienna, Austria  OPEC Statistical Bulletin
  16. ^ "Natural Gas Annual 2004", DOE/EIA-0131(04),December 2005, U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Washington, D.C., USA  Natural Gas Annual 2004
  17. ^ Sierra Bullets L.P. Chapter 3 – Effects of Altitude and Atmospheric Conditions//Rifle and Handgun Reloading Manual, 5th Edition. "Effects of Altitude and Atmospheric Conditions", Exterior Ballistics Section, Sierra's "Rifle and Handgun Reloading Manual, 5th Edition", Sedalia, MO, USA  Exterior Ballistics
  18. ^ The pressure is specified as 750 mmHg. However, the mmHg is temperature dependant, as mercury expands as temperature goes up. Here the values for the 0-20 °C range are given.
  19. ^ "Gas turbines – Procurement – Part 2: Standard reference conditions and ratings", ISO 3977-2:1997 and "Gas turbines - Acceptance tests", ISO 2314:1989, Edition 2, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland ISO
  20. ^ ANSI/AMCA Standard 210, "Laboratory Methods Of Testing Fans for Aerodynamic Performance Rating", as implied here: http://www.greenheck.com/pdf/centrifugal/Plug.pdf when accessed on October 17, 2007
  21. ^ The standard is given as 29.92 inHg at an unspecified temperature. This most likely corresponds to a standard pressure of 101.325 kPa, converted into ~29.921 inHg at 32 °F)

外部連結[編輯]