洋基歌

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洋基歌
(Yankee Doodle)
Sprit of '76.2.jpeg
油畫《七六年之精神》,又名《洋基傻小子》。
作曲 傳統歌曲
作詞 理察·沙克伯勒(?)
出版時間 1770年代
語言 英語
類別 兒歌

洋基歌》(Yankee Doodle)是一首美國傳統歌曲,其起源可追溯至美國七年戰爭時期。今天這首歌在美國通常被當作愛國歌曲,它同時還是康乃狄克州的州歌[1]

這首歌的真正源頭仍不清楚[2]。常見的說法認為這首歌是在美國獨立戰爭以前英軍用以嘲笑殖民地居民粗俗的衣著和舉止的,而「洋基」一詞是對參加法印戰爭新英格蘭人的輕蔑之詞。這首歌的曲調很可能來自與兒歌《露茜的錢袋》(Lucy Locket),其中一個版本的歌詞可能來自於一名英國外科醫生理察·沙克伯勒(Richard Shuckburgh)[3]。雖然這首歌的歌詞帶有貶義,然而獨立戰爭期間美軍卻採用《洋基歌》作爲他們自己的歌,以表明他們對自己樸素的家紡衣著和毫不矯揉造作的舉止感到自豪。洋基歌的歌詞有許多不同版本。多年來,這首歌在美國一直被當作非正式的國歌,也是最受歡迎的兒歌。在各類電影電視動畫片中時常能聽見這首歌曲。

歌詞[編輯]

今天洋基歌最常見版本的第一段歌詞如下:

英文原詞) 中文意譯)
Yankee Doodle went to town,
A-Riding on a pony;
He stuck a feather in his cap,
And called it macaroni.
洋基傻小子跑進城,
騎著隻小馬駒,
他在帽子里插根羽毛,
叫它做通心粉式假髮;

Doodle這個詞最早出現在17世紀初[4],可能源於低地德語dudeldödel,意思是「蠢人」或「傻瓜」。而macaroni(「通心粉」)指的是一種流行於1770年代的假髮,在同時期也成了對趕時髦人士的蔑稱[5]。第一段歌詞可能暗示著美國人(洋基佬)沒見過世面,以為在頭上插根羽毛就算時尚了[6]

洋基歌第一節與其副歌的歌詞,刻在公園小徑上。

早期版本[編輯]

最早版本的歌詞大約形成在1755年或1758年,具體時間還存有爭議[7]

英文原詞) 中文意譯)
Brother Ephraim sold his Cow
And bought him a Commission;
And then he went to Canada
To fight for the Nation;
But when Ephraim he came home
He proved an arrant Coward,
He wouldn't fight the Frenchmen there
For fear of being devour'd.
埃夫萊姆兄弟賣了他的奶牛,
給自己買了個軍職,
隨後他跑到加拿大,
好為國家作戰;
但是等到埃夫萊姆回到家,
大家才發現他是個十足的懦夫,
他不願在那兒抗擊法國人,
因為他害怕被活吞了;

其中的埃夫萊姆影射的是戰死於喬治湖戰役的麻薩諸塞州陸軍上校埃夫萊姆·威廉士(Ephraim Williams)。

英國人經常與某個版本的歌詞聯繫上,此版本歌詞與一個名為托馬斯·迪特森的麻薩諸塞州比勒瑞卡鎮人有關。迪特森在1775年3月在波士頓因為試圖購買滑膛槍而被英國人塗柏油、粘羽毛

英文原詞) 中文意譯)
Yankee Doodle came to town,
For to buy a firelock,
We will tar and feather him,
And so we will John Hancock.
洋基傻小子跑進城,
想要買上把燧火槍,
我們要把他塗上柏油粘上羽毛,
我們對約翰·漢考克也要這麼干;

也正因為這首歌,比勒瑞卡鎮宣稱它是洋基歌中傻小子的「故鄉」[8][9],同時認為正是從此開始,美國人把這首本來是用以嘲笑他們的歌拿來嘲笑英國人。在列剋星敦和康科德戰役之後,一家波士頓報紙作了如下報導: 「在被民兵趕回波士頓以後,一個英國人問他的軍官兄弟對這首歌有什麼看法,——『去他的,』他回答道,『他們逼著我們就著這歌跳舞,直到跳不動了為止。』——從那以後他們就不再喜歡這首歌了。」

邦克山戰役之後,英國人又作了一組歌詞:

英文原詞) 中文意譯)
The seventeen of June, at Break of Day,
The Rebels they supriz'd us,
With their strong Works, which they'd thrown up,
To burn the Town and drive us.
六月十七日,黎明時分,
叛賊們把我們嚇了一跳,
他們用那在一夜之間建起的力量,
燒平了城鎮趕走了我們;

1788年2月6日,麻薩諸塞州議會在布拉特爾街禮拜堂以186票對168票通過了美國憲法。為了表示慶祝,一個新版本的歌詞又開始傳唱[10],以下是歌詞節選:

英文原詞) 中文意譯)
The 'vention did in Boston meet,
The State House could not hold 'em
So then they went to Fed'ral Street,
And there the truth was told 'em...
And ev'ry morning went to prayer,
And then began disputing,
Till oppositions silenced were,
By arguments refuting.
Now politicians of all kinds,
Who are not yet decided,
May see how Yankees speak their minds,
And yet are not divided.
So here I end my Fed'ral song,
Composed of thirteen verses;
May agriculture flourish long
And commerce fill our purses!
議會終於在波士頓召開,
會議大廈卻裝不下,
他們只好跑到聯邦街上,
在那兒他們知道了真相……
每日清晨先去祈禱,
隨後就開始爭吵,
直到對手沉默不語,
辯無可辯為止。
各式各樣的政治家,
那些還沒有做出決定的,
現在能看見洋基佬是如何表達他們的意見,
還有他們是多麼團結。
我的聯邦之歌到此完結,
此歌共有十三樂章;
願農業興盛發達,
願商業使我們的錢包鼓囊!

完整版本[編輯]

今天大家熟知的完整版本歌詞如下[11]

Yankee Doodle went to town
A-riding on a pony,
Stuck a feather in his cap
And called it macaroni'.
Chorus:
Yankee Doodle keep it up,
Yankee Doodle dandy,
Mind the music and the step,
And with the girls be handy.
Fath'r and I went down to camp,
Along with Captain Gooding,
And there we saw the men and boys
As thick as hasty puddin'.
Chorus
And there we saw a thousand men
As rich as Squire David,
And what they wasted every day,
I wish it could be saved.
Chorus
The 'lasses they eat it every day,
Would keep a house a winter;
They have so much, that I'll be bound,
They eat it when they've mind ter.
Chorus
And there I see a swamping gun
Large as a log of maple,
Upon a deuced little cart,
A load for father's cattle.
Chorus
And every time they shoot it off,
It takes a horn of powder,
and makes a noise like father's gun,
Only a nation louder.
Chorus
I went as nigh to one myself
As 'Siah's inderpinning;
And father went as nigh again,
I thought the deuce was in him.
Chorus
Cousin Simon grew so bold,
I thought he would have cocked it;
It scared me so I shrinked it off
And hung by father's pocket.
Chorus
And Cap'n Davis had a gun,
He kind of clapt his hand on't
And stuck a crooked stabbing iron
Upon the little end on't
Chorus
And there I see a pumpkin shell
As big as mother's bason,
And every time they touched it off
They scampered like the nation.
Chorus
I see a little barrel too,
The heads were made of leather;
They knocked on it with little clubs
And called the folks together.
Chorus
And there was Cap'n Washington,
And gentle folks about him;
They say he's grown so 'tarnal proud
He will not ride without em'.
Chorus
He got him on his meeting clothes,
Upon a slapping stallion;
He sat the world along in rows,
In hundreds and in millions.
Chorus
The flaming ribbons in his hat,
They looked so tearing fine, ah,
I wanted dreadfully to get
To give to my Jemima.
Chorus
I see another snarl of men
A digging graves they told me,
So 'tarnal long, so 'tarnal deep,
They 'tended they should hold me.
Chorus
It scared me so, I hooked it off,
Nor stopped, as I remember,
Nor turned about till I got home,
Locked up in mother's chamber.
Chorus

變奏與戲仿版本[編輯]

Carrie Rehkopf演奏

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洋基歌擁有許多變奏與戲仿版本,包括以下這個今天最常見的版本[12]

英文原詞) 中文意譯)
Yankee Doodle went to town
A-riding on a pony
He stuck a feather in his hat
And called it macaroni
Yankee Doodle, keep it up
Yankee Doodle dandy
Mind the music and the step
and with the girls be handy!
Father and I went down to camp
Along with Captain Gooding
And there we saw the men and boys
As thick as hasty pudding.
Chorus
And there was Captain Washington
Upon a slapping stallion
A-givin' orders to his men
I guess there was a million.
Chorus
洋基傻小子跑進城,
騎著只小馬駒,
他在帽子里插根羽毛,
叫它做通心粉式假髮;
洋基傻小子,接著裝,
洋基傻小子趕時髦,
伴著音樂翩翩起舞,
對姑娘們可有一手!
老爹和我上軍營,
跟著上尉古丁,
在那兒我們見了不少男人男孩,
人山人海堆得像塊布丁。
副歌
統帥華盛頓也在那兒,
騎著只高頭大馬,
正在發號施令,
我猜他手下至少有上百萬人。
副歌

文化影響[編輯]

參考資料[編輯]

  1. ^ STATE OF CONNECTICUT, Sites º Seals º Symbols; Connecticut State Register & Manual; retrieved on May 23, 2008
  2. ^ Sonneck, Oscar George Theodore. Report on The Star-spangled Banner, Hail Columbia, America, Yankee Doodle. New York, Dover Publications [1972]. ISBN 0-486-22237-3. 
  3. ^ A. Lomax, John; Lomax, Alan. American ballads and folk songs. New York: Dover. 1994. 521. ISBN 978-0-486-28276-3. 
  4. ^ "doodle", n, Oxford English Dictionary. Accessed April 29th, 2009.
  5. ^ J. Woodforde, The Strange Story of False Hair (London: Taylor & Francis, 1971), p. 40.
  6. ^ R. Ross, Clothing: a global history : or, The Imperialists' new clothes (Polity, 2008), p. 51.
  7. ^ Carola, Chris. Wish "Yankee Doodle" a happy 250th birthday. Maybe.. Associated Press. 07/05/08 [2009-09-10]. 
  8. ^ The Billerica Colonial Minute Men; The Thomas Ditson story; retrieved on July 10, 2008
  9. ^ [1]; Town History and Genealogy; retrieved on October 20, 2008
  10. ^ [2]; Philadelphia Commentaries on the Boston Procession
  11. ^ Gen. George P. Morris - "Original Yankee Words", The Patriotic Anthology, Doubleday, Doran & Company, Inc. publishers, 1941. Introduction by Carl Van Doren. Literary Guild of America, Inc., New York N.Y.
  12. ^ 19 April 2008. Yankee Doodle (Lyrics). YouTube. 2008-04-19 [2009-09-10]. 
  13. ^ Berg, Jerome S. On the Short Waves, 1923-1945: Broadcast Listening in the Pioneer Days of Radio. 1999, McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-0506-6, page 104

外部連結[編輯]