童年

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童年是從出生跨越到青春期的年齡段。[1]童年由兩個階段組成:前運算階段(preoperational stage)和具體運算階段(concrete operational stage)。在發展心理學中,童年被分為四個發展階段,即嬰兒期(學步期),兒童早期(玩耍期),兒童晚期(學齡期),以及青春期(青春期至後青春期)。各種各樣的童年因素會影響一個人人生態度的形成。[1]

童年是一個讓孩子學習、玩耍的時間段,是一個讓孩子在家庭的愛和鼓勵、及許多成人關心下變得堅強與自信的時間段。這個年齡的孩子,生活沒有恐懼,遠離暴力、虐待剝削。正因如此,童年絕非僅是出生與成為成人期間的間隔。它指的是兒童的生活狀態和條件,及這些年的生活質量。[2]

童年的年齡跨度[編輯]

童年的具體時間並不明確,它可以指人類發展中的一段長時間。以發育和生物學而言,它指的是嬰兒期與成年期之間的時期。一般而言,童年從出生開始。也有人認為,童年是玩耍和純真的代名詞,因此應在青春期結束。許多國家的法律中規定了著法定成人年齡,即一個人的童年正式結束,而在法律上成為成人的年齡。這一年齡各國有所不同,一般在15到20歲之間,其中以18歲最為普遍。

童年的發育階段[編輯]

兒童早期[編輯]

一組兒童在演奏小提琴

腳註[編輯]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 麥克米倫學生詞典(Macmillan Dictionary for Students)Macmillan, Pan Ltd. (1981),第173頁。於2010-7-15檢索。
  2. ^ 聯合國兒童基金會(UNICEF),世界兒童發展報告。於2005年檢索。

擴展閱讀[編輯]

  • Ariès, Philippe. Centuries of Childhood: A Social History of Family Life. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1962.
  • Boas, George. The Cult of Childhood. London: Warburg, 1966.
  • Brown, Marilyn R., ed. Picturing Children: Constructions of Childhood between Rousseau and Freud. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2002.
  • Buckingham, David. After the Death of Childhood: Growing Up in the Age of Electronic Media. Blackwell Publishers, 2000. ISBN 0-7456-1933-9.
  • Bunge, Marcia J., ed. The Child in Christian Thought. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2001.
  • Calvert, Karin. Children in the House: The Material Culture of Early Childhood, 1600-1900. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1992.
  • Cleverley, John and D.C. Phillips. Visions of Childhood: Influential Models from Locke to Spock. New York: Teachers College, 1986.
  • Cannella, Gaile and Joe L. Kincheloe. "Kidworld: Childhood Studies, Global Perspectives, and Education". New York: Peter Lang, 2002.
  • Cunningham, Hugh. Children and Childhood in Western Society since 1500. London: Longman, 1995.
  • Cunnington, Phillis and Anne Buck. Children』s Costume in England: 1300 to 1900. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1965.
  • deMause, Lloyde, ed. The History of Childhood. London: Souvenir Press, 1976.
  • Higonnet, Anne. Pictures of Innocence: The History and Crisis of Ideal Childhood. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd., 1998.
  • Immel, Andrea and Michael Witmore, eds. Childhood and Children』s Books in Early Modern Europe, 1550-1800. New York: Routledge, 2006.
  • Kincaid, James R. Child-Loving: The Erotic Child and Victorian Culture. New York: Routledge, 1992.
  • Knörr, Jacqueline, ed. Childhood and Migration. From Experience to Agency. Bielefeld: Transcript, 2005.
  • Müller, Anja, ed. Fashioning Childhood in the Eighteenth Century: Age and Identity. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2006.
  • O』Malley, Andrew. The Making of the Modern Child: Children』s Literature and Childhood in the Late Eighteenth Century. London: Routledge, 2003.
  • Pinchbeck, Ivy and Margaret Hewitt. Children in English Society. 2 vols. London: Routledge, 1969.
  • Pollock, Linda A. Forgotten Children: Parent-child relations from 1500 to 1900. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.
  • Postman, Neil. The Disappearance of Childhood. New York: Vintage, 1994.
  • Schultz, James. The Knowledge of Childhood in the German Middle Ages.
  • Shorter, Edward. The Making of the Modern Family.
  • Sommerville, C. John. The Discovery of Childhood in Puritan England. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1992.
  • Steinberg, Shirley R. and Joe L. Kincheloe. Kinderculture: The Corporate Construction of Childhood. Westview Press Inc., 2004. ISBN 081339157.
  • Stone, Lawrence. The Family, Sex and Marriage in England 1500-1800. New York: Harper and Row, 1979.
  • Zornado, Joseph L. Inventing the Child: Culture, Ideology, and the Story of Childhood. New York: Garland, 2001.

外部連結[編輯]

Wiktionary-logo-zh.png
維基詞典上的詞義解釋:
前任:
嬰兒期
人類發展的過程
兒童早期,兒童期
繼任:
青春期早期

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