癲癇發作

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癲癇發作
Epileptic seizure
同义词Epileptic fit, seizure, fit
Spike-waves.png
Generalized 3 Hz spike and wave discharges in EEG
醫學專科神經內科

癲癇發作epileptic seizureepileptic fit;有時在文獻或新聞簡稱 seizurefit)是脑内异常“过度或同步”的神经元活动,而导致一段时间的症状[1][2]。這種腦內異常的外溢效應(outward effect)可以是無法自行控制的混亂運動,也可以是短暫的失去意識。任何能引起癲癇發作的腦部疾病或损伤,統稱癲癇(epilepsy)或癫痫症[2][1]

癲癇發作可能發生在沒有癲癇歷史的人身上。危險因子包括:腦部创伤、濫用藥物[3]、過高體溫、低血糖缺氧。另外有一些看起來像癲癇發作的症狀,但實際上並非真的癲癇發作。

首次出現的癲癇發作通常不需要長時間服用抗癲癇藥英语anti-seizure medication,除非出現特定問題或要照腦電圖腦部造影(brain imaging)[4]

所有活到80歲的人之中大約 5~10%,在其人生中至少遇過一次癲癇發作,遇到第二次癲癇發作的機率介於 40~50% 之間 [4][5]

徵狀和症狀[编辑]

     參見:癲癇類型

癲癇發作的徵狀和症狀依照其類型而定[6]。 最常見的癲癇發作是驚厥 (60%)[7]

備註[编辑]

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Fisher RS, Acevedo C, Arzimanoglou A, et al. ILAE official report: a practical clinical definition of epilepsy. Epilepsia. April 2014, 55 (4): 475–482. PMID 24730690. S2CID 35958237. doi:10.1111/epi.12550. (原始内容存档于2020-07-31). 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Fisher R, van Emde Boas W, Blume W, et al. Epileptic seizures and epilepsy: definitions proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) and the International Bureau for Epilepsy (IBE). Epilepsia. 2005, 46 (4): 470–2 [2021-10-08]. PMID 15816939. doi:10.1111/j.0013-9580.2005.66104.x. (原始内容存档于2021-10-20) (英语). 
  3. ^ Revesz, Rachael. Pet dog 'ate crack' then killed owner in front of BBC crew filming drug documentary: Major was found to be eight times over the drug drive limit. 獨立報. 2017-09-12 [2017-11-19]. (原始内容存档于2020-07-10) (英语). 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Wilden, JA; Cohen-Gadol, AA. Evaluation of first nonfebrile seizures.. American family physician. Aug 15, 2012, 86 (4): 334–40. PMID 22963022. 
  5. ^ Berg, AT. Risk of recurrence after a first unprovoked seizure. Epilepsia. 2008,. 49 Suppl 1: 13–8. PMID 18184149. doi:10.1111/j.1528-1167.2008.01444.x. 
  6. ^ Shearer, Peter. Seizures and Status Epilepticus: Diagnosis and Management in the Emergency Department. Emergency Medicine Practice. [2017-07-23]. (原始内容存档于2010-12-30). 
  7. ^ National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Chapter 1: Introduction. The Epilepsies: The diagnosis and management of the epilepsies in adults and children in primary and secondary care (PDF). National Clinical Guideline Centre. January 2012: 21–28 [2017-07-23]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2013-12-16). 

外部連結[编辑]