副作用:修订间差异

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<!--an [[抗抑郁药|anti-depressant]], is also used as a smoking cessation aid; this indication was later approved, and the name of the smoking cessation product is Zyban. In Ontario, Canada, smoking cessation drugs are not covered by provincial drug plans; elsewhere, Zyban is priced higher than Wellbutrin, despite being the same drug. Therefore, some physicians prescribe Wellbutrin for both indications.{{Citation needed|date=December 2016}} -->
<!--an [[抗抑郁药|anti-depressant]], is also used as a smoking cessation aid; this indication was later approved, and the name of the smoking cessation product is Zyban. In Ontario, Canada, smoking cessation drugs are not covered by provincial drug plans; elsewhere, Zyban is priced higher than Wellbutrin, despite being the same drug. Therefore, some physicians prescribe Wellbutrin for both indications.{{Citation needed|date=December 2016}} -->
* [[卡马西平|Carbamazepine]] 被核可於治療[[躁鬱症]](bipolar disorder)和 {{tsl|en|epileptic seizure||epileptic seizure}}。但Carbamazepine的副作用對於治療下列症狀也很有效:[[注意力不足過動症]] (ADHD)、[[思覺失調症]](schizophrenia)、[[幻肢]](phantom limb syndrome)、[[阵发性剧痛症|阵发性剧痛症]](paroxysmal extreme pain disorder)、{{tsl|en|neuromyotonia||neuromyotonia}}、和 [[創傷後壓力症候群|創傷後壓力症候群]](post-traumatic stress disorder)。<!--is an approved treatment for [[躁鬱症|bipolar disorder]] and {{tsl|en|epileptic seizure||epileptic seizure}}<nowiki/>s, but it has side effects useful in treating [[注意力不足過動症|attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder]] (ADHD), [[精神分裂症|schizophrenia]], [[幻肢|phantom limb]] syndrome, [[阵发性剧痛症|paroxysmal extreme pain disorder]], {{tsl|en|neuromyotonia||neuromyotonia}}, and [[創傷後壓力症候群|post-traumatic stress disorder]].--><ref>[http://www.leeheymd.com/charts/dep4_1.html Mood Stabilizers for Bipolar Disorder (Manic Depressive)]. Leeheymd.com (2003-08-01). Retrieved on 2011-08-17.</ref>
* [[卡马西平|Carbamazepine]] 被核可於治療[[躁鬱症]](bipolar disorder)和 {{tsl|en|epileptic seizure||epileptic seizure}}。但Carbamazepine的副作用對於治療下列症狀也很有效:[[注意力不足過動症]] (ADHD)、[[思覺失調症]](schizophrenia)、[[幻肢]](phantom limb syndrome)、[[阵发性剧痛症|阵发性剧痛症]](paroxysmal extreme pain disorder)、{{tsl|en|neuromyotonia||neuromyotonia}}、和 [[創傷後壓力症候群|創傷後壓力症候群]](post-traumatic stress disorder)。<!--is an approved treatment for [[躁鬱症|bipolar disorder]] and {{tsl|en|epileptic seizure||epileptic seizure}}<nowiki/>s, but it has side effects useful in treating [[注意力不足過動症|attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder]] (ADHD), [[精神分裂症|schizophrenia]], [[幻肢|phantom limb]] syndrome, [[阵发性剧痛症|paroxysmal extreme pain disorder]], {{tsl|en|neuromyotonia||neuromyotonia}}, and [[創傷後壓力症候群|post-traumatic stress disorder]].--><ref>[http://www.leeheymd.com/charts/dep4_1.html Mood Stabilizers for Bipolar Disorder (Manic Depressive)]. Leeheymd.com (2003-08-01). Retrieved on 2011-08-17.</ref>
* [[地塞米松|Dexamethasone]] 和 {{tsl|en|Betamethasone||Betamethasone}} 被用來支持[[早產]]胎兒的胸腔發展。{{RefTag|name=|1=原文:[[地塞米松|Dexamethasone]] and {{tsl|en|Betamethasone||Betamethasone}} in [[早產|premature labor]], to enhance pulmonary maturation of the fetus.}}<ref name=wing>{{cite journal| last1= Wing |first1= DA|last2= Powers |first2= B| last3= Hickok |first3= D |title=U.S. Food and Drug Administration Drug Approval: Slow Advances in Obstetric Care in the United States |journal=Obstetrics & Gynecology |doi = 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181d53843| volume=115| issue=4| pages=825–33| year=2010 |pmid=20308845}}</ref>
* [[地塞米松|Dexamethasone]]是一种人工合成的[[皮質類固醇]]<ref name=AHFS2015/><ref>{{cite journal |author=van de Beek D, de Gans J, McIntyre P, Prasad K |title=Corticosteroids for acute bacterial meningitis |journal=Cochrane Database Syst Rev |volume= |issue=1 |pages=CD004405 |year=2007 |pmid=17253505 |doi=10.1002/14651858.CD004405.pub2 |url=http://mrw.interscience.wiley.com/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD004405/frame.html}}</ref>,可用於治療多種症狀,包含[[风湿病学|風濕性疾病]],某些[[皮膚病]]、嚴重[[過敏]]、[[哮喘]]、[[慢性阻塞性肺病]]、[[義膜性喉炎]]、{{tsl|en|cerebral edema||腦水腫}},也可能與[[抗細菌藥|抗生素]]合併用於[[結核病]]患者<ref name=AHFS2015/>。對於{{tsl|en|adrenocortical insufficiency||腎上腺皮質機能不全}}的患者須併服具有[[鹽皮質激素]]的藥物,例如{{tsl|en|fludrocortisone|富能錠}}等等<ref name=AHFS2015/> 和 {{tsl|en|Betamethasone||Betamethasone}} 隨後被用來支持[[早產]]胎兒的胸腔發展。{{RefTag|name=|1=原文:[[地塞米松|Dexamethasone]] and {{tsl|en|Betamethasone||Betamethasone}} in [[早產|premature labor]], to enhance pulmonary maturation of the fetus.}}<ref name=wing>{{cite journal| last1= Wing |first1= DA|last2= Powers |first2= B| last3= Hickok |first3= D |title=U.S. Food and Drug Administration Drug Approval: Slow Advances in Obstetric Care in the United States |journal=Obstetrics & Gynecology |doi = 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181d53843| volume=115| issue=4| pages=825–33| year=2010 |pmid=20308845}}</ref>
* {{tsl|en|Doxepin||Doxepin}} has been used to treat {{tsl|en|angiodema||angiodema}} and severe allergic reactions due to its strong [[抗組織胺藥|antihistamine]] properties.<ref>{{cite journal|url=http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/reprint/140/7/957 |title=Doxepin as a potent H2 and H2 antihistamine for epigastric distress |pmid=6859336 | volume=140 |issue=7 |date=July 1983 |journal=Am J Psychiatry |pages=957–8 |last1=Shen| first1= WW| last2= Mahadevan |first2= J| last3= Hofstatter| first3= L| last4= Sata |first4= LS | doi=10.1176/ajp.140.7.957}}</ref>
* {{tsl|en|Doxepin||Doxepin}} has been used to treat {{tsl|en|angiodema||angiodema}} and severe allergic reactions due to its strong [[抗組織胺藥|antihistamine]] properties.<ref>{{cite journal|url=http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/reprint/140/7/957 |title=Doxepin as a potent H2 and H2 antihistamine for epigastric distress |pmid=6859336 | volume=140 |issue=7 |date=July 1983 |journal=Am J Psychiatry |pages=957–8 |last1=Shen| first1= WW| last2= Mahadevan |first2= J| last3= Hofstatter| first3= L| last4= Sata |first4= LS | doi=10.1176/ajp.140.7.957}}</ref>
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2017年7月10日 (一) 16:54的版本

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尼古丁的副作用。

醫學中,副作用(英語:side effect)是指藥品往往有多種作用,作用於不同身體部位受體,治療時利用其一種或一部分受體作用,其他作用或是受體產生作用即變成為副作用。雖然副作用一詞常被用來形容 不良反应 (医学)(adverse effects),但事實上副作用也可以指那些「有益處、意料之外」的效果。

有時候,一些藥物的副作用反而成為醫生處方那些藥物的目的;在這種情況下,那些藥物的副作用不再是副作用,反而是藥物的主作用了。 例如:X輻射線/X光(X-rays)一直被用做醫學影像用途,人們原本把它的輻射線對人體產生的效果當成是副作用。但自從人們發現X輻射線/X光能夠用來治療腫瘤後,輻射線被應用為放射線療法(radiotherapy)。在醫學影像領域中被當成副作用的輻射線效果,在癌症治療上反而成了消滅贅生物(tumours)的正作用了。


副作用出現頻率的用語表示法 Frequency of side effects

通常以下列幾個術語來表示副作用出現的機率[參 1] [1][2]

  • 非常常見 (Very common) >= 1/10
  • 常見( Common (frequent)) >= 1/100 & <1/10
  • 不常見 (Uncommon (infrequent)) >= 1/1000 & <1/100
  • 罕見 (Rare) >= 1/10000 & <1/1000
  • 非常罕見 (Very rare) < 1/10000

舉例:有療效的「副作用」 (Examples of therapeutic side effects)

尼古丁可能的副作用
Possible side effects of nicotine.[3]

相關條目 See also

References

  1. ^ Common and Rare Side Effects for misoprostol oral. 
  2. ^ http://www.who.int/medicines/areas/quality_safety/safety_efficacy/trainingcourses/definitions.pdf
  3. ^ Detailed reference list is located on a separate image page.
  4. ^ Boseley, Sarah. Drugs firm blocks cheap blindness cure. The Guardian (London). 2006-06-17 [2010-05-20]. 
  5. ^ Gracer, Richard. The Buprenorphine Effect on Depression (PDF). naabt.org. National Alliance of Advocates for Buprenorphine Treatment. February 2007 [19 September 2015]. 
  6. ^ Bodkin, JA; Zornberg, GL; Lukas, SE; Cole, JO. Buprenorphine Treatment of Refractory Depression. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. 1995, 15: 49–57. PMID 7714228. doi:10.1097/00004714-199502000-00008. 
  7. ^ Mood Stabilizers for Bipolar Disorder (Manic Depressive). Leeheymd.com (2003-08-01). Retrieved on 2011-08-17.
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 8.2 引用错误:没有为名为AHFS2015的参考文献提供内容
  9. ^ van de Beek D, de Gans J, McIntyre P, Prasad K. Corticosteroids for acute bacterial meningitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007, (1): CD004405. PMID 17253505. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004405.pub2. 
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 Wing, DA; Powers, B; Hickok, D. U.S. Food and Drug Administration Drug Approval: Slow Advances in Obstetric Care in the United States. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2010, 115 (4): 825–33. PMID 20308845. doi:10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181d53843. 
  11. ^ Shen, WW; Mahadevan, J; Hofstatter, L; Sata, LS. Doxepin as a potent H2 and H2 antihistamine for epigastric distress. Am J Psychiatry. July 1983, 140 (7): 957–8. PMID 6859336. doi:10.1176/ajp.140.7.957. 
  12. ^ Off-label Use of Gabapentin, Idaho Drug Utilization Review, educational leaflet, 2004.
  13. ^ Pregnancy. drugs.nmihi.com. (New Medical Information and Health Information). (原始内容存档于11 October 2008). 
  14. ^ Deem, Samuel G. Premature Ejaculation. Emedicine.com. [2011-08-17]. 
  15. ^ Gelenberg, Alan J.; et al. Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder (PDF). American Psychiatric Association. 2010. 
  16. ^ Cheshire, William P.; Fealey, Robert D. Drug-induced hyperhidrosis and hypohidrosis: incidence, prevention and management (PDF). Drug Safety. 2008, 31 (2): 109–126. ISSN 0114-5916. PMID 18217788. 
  17. ^ Filagra Vs Fildena. Filagra100mg.com. 23 February 2017. 

備註

  1. ^ The probability or chance of experiencing side effects are characterised as :
  2. ^ 原文:Dexamethasone and Betamethasone in premature labor, to enhance pulmonary maturation of the fetus.

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