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蓝鲸:修订间差异

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=== 捕食 ===
=== 捕食 ===
[[File:Bl-10 blue.jpg|thumb|藍鯨小型[[背鰭]]在照片左側隱約可見]]藍鯨幾乎只捕食[[磷蝦]]。<ref name="Sears_Perr_2009" />它们使用衝刺進食,张嘴可达80°,并以高速游向食物。<ref name="Sears_Perr_2009" /><ref name="Goldbogen_etal_20112">{{cite journal |author1=Goldbogen, J. A. |author2=Calambokidis, J. |author3=Oleson, E. |author4=Potvin, J. |author5=Pyenson, N. D. |author6=Schorr, G. |author7=Shadwick, R. E. |date=2011 |title=Mechanics, hydrodynamics and energetics of blue whale lunge feeding: Efficiency dependence on krill density |journal=Journal of Experimental Biology |volume=214 |issue=1 |pages=131–46 |doi=10.1242/jeb.048157 |pmid=21147977 |doi-access=free}}</ref>捕食时它们可一次吞下220吨海水。<ref name="Fossette_etal_2017">{{cite journal |author1=Fossette, S. |author2=Abrahms, B. |author3=Hazen, E. L. |author4=Bograd, S. J. |author5=Zilliacus, K. M. |author6=Calambokidis, J. |author7=Burrows, J. A. |author8=Goldbogen, J. A. |author9=Harvey, J. T. |author10=Marinovic, B. |author11=Tershy, B. |date=2017 |title=Resource partitioning facilitates coexistence in sympatric cetaceans in the California Current |journal=Ecology and Evolution |volume=7 |issue=1 |pages=9085–9097 |doi=10.1002/ece3.3409 |pmc=5677487 |pmid=29152200 |author12=Croll, D. A.}}</ref>蓝鲸借助其腹腔和舌头的压力,由[[鲸须|鲸须板]]将这些海水排出,然后吞下剩余的磷蝦。<ref name="Sears_Perr_2009" /><ref name="Goldbogen_etal_20112" />當藍鯨捕食磷蝦時,偶爾也會吞進小型魚類、甲殼類與烏賊。<ref>{{cite journal |author=Nemoto T |year=1957 |title=Foods of baleen whales in the northern Pacific |journal=Sci. Rep. Whales Res. Inst. |volume=12 |pages=33-89}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |author=Nemoto T, Kawamura A |year=1977 |title=Characteristics of food habits and distribution of baleen whales with special reference to the abundance of North Pacific sei and Bryde’s whales |journal=Rep. int. Whal. Commn |volume=1 |issue=Special Issue |pages=80-87}}</ref>有记录蓝鲸在衝刺進食时进行了180°转弯,这允许它们调整位置,找到猎物密度最高的位置。<ref name="Goldbogen_etal_2012">{{cite journal |author1=Goldbogen, J. A. |author2=Calambokidis, J. |author3=Friedlaender, A. S. |author4=Francis, J. |author5=DeRuiter, A. L. |author6=Stimpert, A. K. |author7=Falcone, E. |author8=Southall, B. L. |date=2012 |title=Underwater acrobatics by the world's largest predator: 360° rolling manoeuvres by lunge-feeding blue whales |journal=[[Biology Letters]] |volume=9 |issue=1 |page=20120986 |doi=10.1098/rsbl.2012.0986 |pmc=3565519 |pmid=23193050}}</ref>
[[File:Bl-10 blue.jpg|thumb|藍鯨小型[[背鰭]]在照片左側隱約可見]]藍鯨幾乎只捕食[[磷蝦]]。<ref name="Sears_Perr_2009" />它们使用衝刺進食,张嘴可达80°,并以高速游向食物。<ref name="Sears_Perr_2009" /><ref name="Goldbogen_etal_20112">{{cite journal |author1=Goldbogen, J. A. |author2=Calambokidis, J. |author3=Oleson, E. |author4=Potvin, J. |author5=Pyenson, N. D. |author6=Schorr, G. |author7=Shadwick, R. E. |date=2011 |title=Mechanics, hydrodynamics and energetics of blue whale lunge feeding: Efficiency dependence on krill density |journal=Journal of Experimental Biology |volume=214 |issue=1 |pages=131–46 |doi=10.1242/jeb.048157 |pmid=21147977 |doi-access=free}}</ref>捕食时它们可一次吞下220吨海水。<ref name="Fossette_etal_2017">{{cite journal |author1=Fossette, S. |author2=Abrahms, B. |author3=Hazen, E. L. |author4=Bograd, S. J. |author5=Zilliacus, K. M. |author6=Calambokidis, J. |author7=Burrows, J. A. |author8=Goldbogen, J. A. |author9=Harvey, J. T. |author10=Marinovic, B. |author11=Tershy, B. |date=2017 |title=Resource partitioning facilitates coexistence in sympatric cetaceans in the California Current |journal=Ecology and Evolution |volume=7 |issue=1 |pages=9085–9097 |doi=10.1002/ece3.3409 |pmc=5677487 |pmid=29152200 |author12=Croll, D. A.}}</ref>蓝鲸借助其腹腔和舌头的压力,由[[鲸须|鲸须板]]将这些海水排出,然后吞下剩余的磷蝦。<ref name="Sears_Perr_2009" /><ref name="Goldbogen_etal_20112" />當藍鯨捕食磷蝦時,偶爾也會吞進小型魚類、甲殼類與烏賊。<ref>{{cite journal |author=Nemoto T |year=1957 |title=Foods of baleen whales in the northern Pacific |journal=Sci. Rep. Whales Res. Inst. |volume=12 |pages=33-89}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |author=Nemoto T, Kawamura A |year=1977 |title=Characteristics of food habits and distribution of baleen whales with special reference to the abundance of North Pacific sei and Bryde’s whales |journal=Rep. int. Whal. Commn |volume=1 |issue=Special Issue |pages=80-87}}</ref>有记录蓝鲸在衝刺進食时进行了180°转弯,这允许它们调整位置,找到猎物密度最高的位置。<ref name="Goldbogen_etal_2012">{{cite journal |author1=Goldbogen, J. A. |author2=Calambokidis, J. |author3=Friedlaender, A. S. |author4=Francis, J. |author5=DeRuiter, A. L. |author6=Stimpert, A. K. |author7=Falcone, E. |author8=Southall, B. L. |date=2012 |title=Underwater acrobatics by the world's largest predator: 360° rolling manoeuvres by lunge-feeding blue whales |journal=Biology Letters |volume=9 |issue=1 |page=20120986 |doi=10.1098/rsbl.2012.0986 |pmc=3565519 |pmid=23193050}}</ref>


为最大化能量摄入,蓝鲸在捕食磷虾群时会选择密度最大的虾群发起冲击。这使它们在日常能量消耗外仍保留有足够的额外能量用于迁徙与繁殖。磷虾密度需要达到100只/m³,蓝鲸的能量收入才可高于消耗。<ref name="Goldbogen_etal_20112" /><ref name="Hazen_etal_2015">{{cite journal |author1=Hazen, E. L. |author2=Friedlaender, A. S. |author3=Goldbogen, J. A. |date=2015 |title=Blue whales ("Balaenoptera musculus") optimize foraging efficiency by balancing oxygen use and energy gain as a function of prey density |journal=Science Advances |volume=1 |issue=9 |page=e1500469 |bibcode=2015SciA....1E0469H |doi=10.1126/sciadv.1500469 |pmc=4646804 |pmid=26601290 |doi-access=free}}</ref>一次进食可摄取34,776–1,912,680[[焦耳|千焦]](8,312–457,141[[卡路里]])的能量,这些能量最多可供蓝鲸进行240次衝刺進食动作。<ref name="Goldbogen_etal_20112" />估计一只平均体型蓝鲸每天需要进食1,120 ± 359千克磷虾。<ref name="Brodie_1975">{{cite journal |author1=Brodie, P. F. |date=1975 |title=Cetacean energetics, an overview of intraspecific size variation |journal=Ecology |volume=56 |issue=1 |pages=152–161 |doi=10.2307/1935307 |jstor=1935307}}</ref><ref name="Croll_etal_2006">{{cite book|author1=Croll, D. A.|author2=Kudela, R.|author3=Tershy, B. R.|title=Whales, Whaling and Ocean Ecosystems|chapter=Ecosystem impact of the decline of large whales in the North Pacific|publisher=University of California Press|location=Berkeley, CA|editor1-last=Estes|editor1-first=J. A.|pages=202–214|date=2006}}</ref>有時候牠們一天會捕食5,000公斤的磷蝦。<ref name="afsc">{{cite web|date=2004|title=Detailed Information about Blue Whales|url=http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/nmml/education/cetaceans/blue.php|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200427184824/https://www.afsc.noaa.gov/nmml/education/cetaceans/blue.php|archive-date=2020-04-27|accessdate=2007-06-14|publisher=Alaska Fisheries Science Center}}</ref>
为最大化能量摄入,蓝鲸在捕食磷虾群时会选择密度最大的虾群发起冲击。这使它们在日常能量消耗外仍保留有足够的额外能量用于迁徙与繁殖。磷虾密度需要达到100只/m³,蓝鲸的能量收入才可高于消耗。<ref name="Goldbogen_etal_20112" /><ref name="Hazen_etal_2015">{{cite journal |author1=Hazen, E. L. |author2=Friedlaender, A. S. |author3=Goldbogen, J. A. |date=2015 |title=Blue whales ("Balaenoptera musculus") optimize foraging efficiency by balancing oxygen use and energy gain as a function of prey density |journal=Science Advances |volume=1 |issue=9 |page=e1500469 |bibcode=2015SciA....1E0469H |doi=10.1126/sciadv.1500469 |pmc=4646804 |pmid=26601290 |doi-access=free}}</ref>一次进食可摄取34,776–1,912,680[[焦耳|千焦]](8,312–457,141[[卡路里]])的能量,这些能量最多可供蓝鲸进行240次衝刺進食动作。<ref name="Goldbogen_etal_20112" />估计一只平均体型蓝鲸每天需要进食1,120 ± 359千克磷虾。<ref name="Brodie_1975">{{cite journal |author1=Brodie, P. F. |date=1975 |title=Cetacean energetics, an overview of intraspecific size variation |journal=Ecology |volume=56 |issue=1 |pages=152–161 |doi=10.2307/1935307 |jstor=1935307}}</ref><ref name="Croll_etal_2006">{{cite book|author1=Croll, D. A.|author2=Kudela, R.|author3=Tershy, B. R.|title=Whales, Whaling and Ocean Ecosystems|chapter=Ecosystem impact of the decline of large whales in the North Pacific|publisher=University of California Press|location=Berkeley, CA|editor1-last=Estes|editor1-first=J. A.|pages=202–214|date=2006}}</ref>有時候牠們一天會捕食5,000千克的磷蝦。<ref name="afsc">{{cite web|date=2004|title=Detailed Information about Blue Whales|url=http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/nmml/education/cetaceans/blue.php|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200427184824/https://www.afsc.noaa.gov/nmml/education/cetaceans/blue.php|archive-date=2020-04-27|accessdate=2007-06-14|publisher=Alaska Fisheries Science Center}}</ref>


蓝鲸通常会避免与其它[[鬚鯨|须鲸]]的直接竞争。<ref name="Hardin_1960">{{cite journal |author1=Hardin, G. |date=1960 |title=The competitive exclusion principle |journal=Science |volume=131 |issue=3409 |pages=1292–1297 |bibcode=1960Sci...131.1292H |doi=10.1126/science.131.3409.1292 |pmid=14399717 |s2cid=18542809}}</ref><ref name="Hutchinson_1961">{{cite journal |author1=Hutchinson, G. E. |date=1961 |title=The Paradox of the Plankton |journal=The American Naturalist |volume=95 |issue=882 |pages=137–145 |doi=10.1086/282171 |s2cid=86353285}}</ref><ref name="Pianka_1974">{{cite journal |author1=Pianka, E. R. |date=1974 |title=Niche overlap and diffuse competition |journal=Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences |volume=71 |issue=5 |pages=2141–2145 |bibcode=1974PNAS...71.2141P |doi=10.1073/pnas.71.5.2141 |pmc=388403 |pmid=4525324 |doi-access=free}}</ref>不同鲸鱼会选择不同的捕食场地、时间和猎物。<ref name="Doniol-Valcroze_2008">{{cite thesis |author1=Doniol-Valcroze, T. |title=Habitat selection and niche characteristics of rorqual whales in the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence (Canada) |type=PhD |publisher=[[McGill University]] |location=Montreal, Canada |date=2008}}</ref><ref name="Friedlaender_etal_2015">{{cite journal |author1=Friedlaender, A. S. |author2=Goldbogen, J. A. |author3=Hazen, E. L. |author4=Calambokidis, J. |author5=Southall, B. L. |date=2015 |title=Feeding performance by sympatric blue and fin whales exploiting a common prey resource |journal=Marine Mammal Science |volume=31 |issue=1 |pages=345–354 |doi=10.1111/mms.12134}}</ref><ref name="Fossette_etal_2017" />南冰洋的不同须鲸捕食不同大小的[[南极磷虾]],这或许可以减少它们之间的竞争。<ref name="Santora_etal_2010">{{cite journal |author1=Santora, J. A. |author2=Reiss, C. S. |author3=Loeb, V. J. |author4=Veit, R. R. |date=2010 |title=Spatial association between hotspots of baleen whales and demographic patterns of Antarctic krill ''Euphausia superba'' suggests size-dependent predation |journal=Marine Ecology Progress Series |volume=405 |pages=255–269 |bibcode=2010MEPS..405..255S |doi=10.3354/meps08513 |doi-access=free}}</ref>
蓝鲸通常会避免与其它[[鬚鯨|须鲸]]的直接竞争。<ref name="Hardin_1960">{{cite journal |author1=Hardin, G. |date=1960 |title=The competitive exclusion principle |journal=Science |volume=131 |issue=3409 |pages=1292–1297 |bibcode=1960Sci...131.1292H |doi=10.1126/science.131.3409.1292 |pmid=14399717 |s2cid=18542809}}</ref><ref name="Hutchinson_1961">{{cite journal |author1=Hutchinson, G. E. |date=1961 |title=The Paradox of the Plankton |journal=The American Naturalist |volume=95 |issue=882 |pages=137–145 |doi=10.1086/282171 |s2cid=86353285}}</ref><ref name="Pianka_1974">{{cite journal |author1=Pianka, E. R. |date=1974 |title=Niche overlap and diffuse competition |journal=Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences |volume=71 |issue=5 |pages=2141–2145 |bibcode=1974PNAS...71.2141P |doi=10.1073/pnas.71.5.2141 |pmc=388403 |pmid=4525324 |doi-access=free}}</ref>不同鲸鱼会选择不同的捕食场地、时间和猎物。<ref name="Doniol-Valcroze_2008">{{cite thesis |author1=Doniol-Valcroze, T. |title=Habitat selection and niche characteristics of rorqual whales in the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence (Canada) |type=PhD |publisher=[[McGill University]] |location=Montreal, Canada |date=2008}}</ref><ref name="Friedlaender_etal_2015">{{cite journal |author1=Friedlaender, A. S. |author2=Goldbogen, J. A. |author3=Hazen, E. L. |author4=Calambokidis, J. |author5=Southall, B. L. |date=2015 |title=Feeding performance by sympatric blue and fin whales exploiting a common prey resource |journal=Marine Mammal Science |volume=31 |issue=1 |pages=345–354 |doi=10.1111/mms.12134}}</ref><ref name="Fossette_etal_2017" />南冰洋的不同须鲸捕食不同大小的[[南极磷虾]],这或许可以减少它们之间的竞争。<ref name="Santora_etal_2010">{{cite journal |author1=Santora, J. A. |author2=Reiss, C. S. |author3=Loeb, V. J. |author4=Veit, R. R. |date=2010 |title=Spatial association between hotspots of baleen whales and demographic patterns of Antarctic krill ''Euphausia superba'' suggests size-dependent predation |journal=Marine Ecology Progress Series |volume=405 |pages=255–269 |bibcode=2010MEPS..405..255S |doi=10.3354/meps08513 |doi-access=free}}</ref>


=== 發聲 ===
=== 發聲 ===
{{main|鯨歌}}{{listen|pos=right|filename=Blue whale atlantic1.ogg|title=蓝鲸的鲸歌|description=录制于大西洋 (1)|format=[[Ogg]]|filename2=Blue whale atlantic3.ogg|title2=蓝鲸的鲸歌|description2=录制于大西洋 (2)|format2=[[Ogg]]|filename3=Blue_Whale_NE_Pacific.ogg|title3=蓝鲸的鲸歌|description3=录制于太平洋东北部|format3=[[Ogg]]|filename4=Blue_Whale_South_Pacific.ogg|title4=蓝鲸的鲸歌|description4=录制于南太平洋|format4=[[Ogg]]|filename5=Blue_Whale_West_Pacific.ogg|title5=蓝鲸的鲸歌|description5=录制于西太平洋|format5=[[Ogg]]}}蓝鲸可发出所有动物中最响亮、[[頻率|频率]]最低的声音<ref name=NOAA>{{cite report|first1=Chris W. |last1= Oliver|date=November 2020|title= Recovery Plan for the Blue Whale (''Balaenoptera musculus'') |publisher=National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration |url=https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/resource/document/recovery-plan-blue-whale-balaenoptera-musculus-0|accessdate=April 12, 2022}}</ref>,并且它们的[[內耳|内耳]]也十分适应探测[[低頻|低频]]声音。<ref name="Yamato_etal_2008">{{cite journal |author1=Yamato, M. |author2=Ketten, D. R. |author3=Arruda, J. |author4=Cramer, S. |date=2008 |title=Biomechanical and structural modeling of hearing in baleen whales |journal=Bioacoustics |volume=17 |issue=1–3 |pages=100–102 |doi=10.1080/09524622.2008.9753781 |s2cid=85314872}}</ref>研究者通過距離藍鯨1米參考壓力一毫帕的測量,估計藍鯨的聲音在源頭處可以達到155-188[[分貝]]。<ref>{{cite journal |author=W.C. Cummings and P.O. Thompson |year=1971 |title=Underwater sounds from the blue whale ''Balaenoptera musculus'' |journal=Journal of the Acoustics Society of America |volume=50 (4) |pages=1193–1198}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|author=W.J. Richardson, C.R. Greene, C.I. Malme and D.H. Thomson|title=Marine mammals and noise|publisher=Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, CA.|year=1995|id=ISBN 978-0-12-588441-9}}</ref>蓝鲸的基础[[動物交流|发声]]频率为8-25赫兹<ref name="Stafford_etal_1998">{{cite journal |author1=Stafford, K. M. |author2=Fox, G. C. |author3=Clark, D. S. |date=1998 |title=Long‐range acoustic detection and localization of blue whale calls in the northeast Pacific Ocean |journal=Journal of the Acoustical Society of America |volume=50 |issue=4 |pages=1193–1198 |bibcode=1998ASAJ..104.3616S |doi=10.1121/1.423944 |pmid=9857519}}</ref>,鲸歌因族群不同而有差异。<ref name="McDonald_etal_2006">{{cite journal |author1=McDonald, M. A. |author2=Mesnick, S. L. |author3=Hildebrand, J. A. |date=2006 |title=Biogeographic characterization of blue whale song worldwide: Using song to identify populations |journal=Journal of Cetacean Research and Management |volume=8 |pages=55–66}}</ref>
{{main|鯨歌}}
蓝鲸东北大西洋族群的发声有较为详细的研究。它们的声音被总结为四个音符:脉冲声(A)、音调声(B)、紧接在B后的上扬声(C),以及下降音(D)。<ref name="Aroyan_etal_2000">{{cite book|author1=Aroyan, J. L.|author2=McDonald, M. A.|author3=Webb, S. C.|author4=Hildebrand, J. A.|author5=Clark, D. S.|author6=Laitman, J. T.|author7=Reidenberg, J. S.|title=Hearing by whales and dolphins|chapter=Acoustic models of sound production and propagation|editor1-last=Au|editor1-first=W. W. A.|editor2-last=Popper|editor2-first=A.|editor3-last=Fay|editor3-first=R. N.|publisher=Springer-Verlag|location=New York|page=442|date=2000}}</ref><ref name="McDonald_etal_2001">{{cite journal |author1=McDonald, M. A. |author2=Calambokidis, J. |author3=Teranishi, A. M. |author4=Hildebrand, J. A. |date=2001 |title=The acoustic calls of blue whales off California with gender data |url=http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/6vg9t2g7 |journal=Journal of the Acoustical Society of America |volume=109 |issue=4 |pages=1728–1735 |bibcode=2001ASAJ..109.1728M |doi=10.1121/1.1353593 |pmid=11325141}}</ref>A和B通常在蓝鲸相互交流时重复发出,并且只有雄性蓝鲸才会使用这两个声音,这或许表明它们与交配活动相关。<ref name="McDonald_etal_2001" /><ref name="Oleson_etal_2007a">{{cite journal |author1=Oleson, E. M. |author2=Calambokidis, J. |author3=Burgess, W. C. |author4=McDonald, M. A. |author5=LeDuc, C. A. |author6=Hildebrand, J. A. |date=2007 |title=Behavioral context of call production by eastern North Pacific blue whales |journal=Marine Ecology Progress Series |volume=330 |pages=269–284 |bibcode=2007MEPS..330..269O |doi=10.3354/meps330269 |doi-access=free}}</ref>D音或许有多种不同功用,两种性别蓝鲸在捕食时的交互中都可发出D音<ref name="Oleson_etal_2007a" /><ref name="Lewis_etal_2018">{{cite journal |author1=Lewis, L. A. |author2=Calambokidis, J. |author3=Stimpert, A. K. |author4=Fahlbusch, J. |author5=Friedlaender, A. S. |author6=McKenna, M. F. |author7=Mesnick, S. |author8=Oleson, E. M. |author9=Southall, B. L. |author10=Szesciorka, A. S. |author11=Sirovic, A. |date=2018 |title=Context-dependent variability in blue whale acoustic behaviour |journal=Royal Society Open Science |volume=5 |issue=8 |page=1080241 |doi=10.1098/rsos.180241 |pmc=6124089 |pmid=30225013}}</ref>,雄性与其它个体竞争时也会发出D音。<ref name="Schall_etal_2019" />
卡明斯和湯普森(1971年)表示,通過距離藍鯨1米參考壓力一毫帕的測量,估計藍鯨的聲音在源頭處可以達到155-188[[分貝]]<ref>{{cite journal | title = Underwater sounds from the blue whale ''Balaenoptera musculus'' | author = W.C. Cummings and P.O. Thompson | journal = Journal of the Acoustics Society of America | volume = 50 (4) | pages = 1193–1198 | year = 1971}}</ref><ref>{{cite book | author= W.J. Richardson, C.R. Greene, C.I. Malme and D.H. Thomson | title = Marine mammals and noise | publisher = Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, CA. | year = 1995 | id = ISBN 978-0-12-588441-9}}</ref>。所有的藍鯨種群發聲的[[基頻]]位在10-40[[赫茲]]之間,而人類能夠察覺的最低頻率則是20赫茲。藍鯨的聲音持續時間為10-30秒鐘。[[斯里蘭卡]]海岸外曾經記錄到藍鯨的重複發出4個音符的「歌」,每次大約持續兩分鐘,使人想起-{}-著名的[[鯨歌|駝背鯨之歌]]。研究者認為這種現象並沒在其他種群中看到,這可能是侏儒藍鯨(''B. m. brevicauda'')所特有的。科學家並不知道藍鯨為什麼要發聲,理查森等人(1995年)提出了下面6種可能的原因<ref>{{cite web | author = National Marine Fisheries Service | year = 2002 | title = Endangered Species Act - Section 7 Consultation Biological Opinion | url = http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/prot_res/readingrm/ESAsec7/7pr_surtass-2020529.pdf | format = PDF | access-date = 2005-05-24 | archive-date = 2005-09-06 | archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20050906050746/http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/prot_res/readingrm/ESAsec7/7pr_surtass-2020529.pdf }}</ref>:

# 保持個體間的距離
曾有记录在[[斯里蘭卡|斯里兰卡]]海域的蓝鲸创作的三节鲸歌。首节是频率为19.8-43.5赫兹的脉冲声,通常持续17.9 ± 5.2秒。第二节频率为55.9-72.4赫兹[[频率调制|调频]],持续时间13.8 ± 1.1秒。末节频率108-104.7赫兹,时长28.5 ± 1.6秒。<ref name="Stafford_etal_2010">{{cite journal |author1=Stafford, K. M. |author2=Chapp, E. |author3=Bohnenstiel, D. |author4=Tolstoy, M. |author4-link=Maya Tolstoy |date=2010 |title=Seasonal detection of three types of "pygmy" blue whale calls in the Indian Ocean |journal=Marine Mammal Science |volume=27 |issue=4 |pages=828–840 |doi=10.1111/j.1748-7692.2010.00437.x}}</ref>在马达加斯加有记录到2节鲸歌<ref name="Ljungblad_etal_1998">{{cite report|title=A comparison of sounds attributed to pygmy blue whales (''Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda'') recorded south of the Madagascar Plateau and those attributed to 'true' blue whales (''Balaenoptera musculus'') recorded off Antarctica|author1=Ljungblad, D. K.|author2=Clark, C. W.|date=1998|publisher=International Whaling Commission|volume=48|pages=439–442|author3=Shimada, H.}}</ref>,首节为5-7次[[中心频率]]为35.1 ± 0.7赫兹,持续4.4 ± 0.5秒,第二节35 ± 0赫兹持续10.9 ± 1.1秒。<ref name="Stafford_etal_2010" />记录到南冰洋蓝鲸产生的18秒鲸歌,先是9秒时长,27赫兹叫声,然后是1秒钟至19赫兹的降调,随后降调至18赫兹。<ref name="Sirovic_etal_2004">{{cite journal |author1=Sirovic, A. |author2=Hildebrand, J. A. |author3=Wiggins, S. M. |author4=McDonald, M. A. |author5=Moore, S. E. |author6=Thiele, D. |date=2004 |title=Seasonality of blue and fin whale calls and the influence of sea ice in the Western Antarctic Peninsula |journal=Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography |volume=51 |issue=17–19 |pages=2327–2344 |bibcode=2004DSRII..51.2327S |doi=10.1016/j.dsr2.2004.08.005}}</ref><ref name="Rankin_etal_2005">{{cite journal |author1=Rankin, S. |author2=Ljungblad, D. |author3=Clark, C. |author4=Kato, H. |date=2005 |title=Vocalisations of Antarctic blue whales, ''Balaenoptera musculus intermedia'', recorded during the 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 IWC/SOWER circumpolar cruises, Area V, Antarctica |journal=Journal of Cetacean Research and Management |volume=7 |pages=13–20}}</ref>其它叫声还包括1-4秒时长,频率为80和38赫兹调频。<ref name="Rankin_etal_2005" /><ref name="Sirovic_etal_2006">{{cite journal |author1=Sirovic, A. |author2=Hildebrand, J. A. |author3=Thiele, D. |date=2006 |title=Baleen whales in the Scotia Sea in January and February 2003 |journal=Journal of Cetacean Research and Management |volume=8 |pages=161–171}}</ref>
# 同類和個體識別

# 環境資訊傳遞(例如覓食,警告,求偶)
有证据表明蓝鲸的叫声频率正随时间下降。<ref name="Nieukirk_etal_2005">{{cite conference |author1=Nieukirk, S. L. |author2=Mellinger, D. K. |author3=Hildebrand, J. A. |author4=McDonald, M. A. |author5=Dziak, R. P. |date=2005 |title=Downward shift in the frequency of blue whale vocalizations |conference=16th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals |location=San Diego, CA |page=205}}</ref><ref name="McDonald_etal_2009">{{cite journal |author1=McDonald, M. A. |author2=Hildebrand, J. A. |author3=Mesnick, S. |date=2009 |title=Worldwide decline in tonal frequencies of blue whale songs |journal=Endangered Species Research |volume=9 |pages=13–21 |doi=10.3354/esr00217 |doi-access=free}}</ref><ref name="Leroy_etal_2018">{{cite journal |author1=Leroy, E. C. |author2=Royer, J.-Y. |author3=Bonnel, J. |author4=Samaran, F. |date=2018 |title=Long-term and seasonal changes of large whale call frequency in the southern Indian Ocean |url=https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00516/62730/ |journal=Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans |volume=123 |issue=11 |pages=8568–8580 |bibcode=2018JGRC..123.8568L |doi=10.1029/2018JC014352 |s2cid=135201588}}</ref>自1960年代至21世纪初,蓝鲸东北太平洋族群的叫声频率下降了31%。<ref name="Nieukirk_etal_2005" /><ref name="McDonald_etal_2009" />从2002年起,生活在南极附近的侏儒蓝鲸叫声频率逐年下降十分之几赫兹。<ref name="Leroy_etal_2018" />其中原因可能是由于蓝鲸族群数量的恢复,性选择压力逐渐升高(频率更低的叫声意味着更大的体型)。<ref name="McDonald_etal_2009" />
# 保持群體聯繫(例如雌性和雄性間的交流)

# 地貌特徵定位
科学家曾提出了以下六種可能的蓝鲸发声原因:保持個體間的距離;同類和個體識別;環境資訊傳遞(例如覓食,警告,求偶);保持群體聯繫(例如雌性和雄性間的交流);地貌特徵定位;食物定位。<ref>{{cite web|author=National Marine Fisheries Service|year=2002|title=Endangered Species Act - Section 7 Consultation Biological Opinion|url=http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/prot_res/readingrm/ESAsec7/7pr_surtass-2020529.pdf|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20050906050746/http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/prot_res/readingrm/ESAsec7/7pr_surtass-2020529.pdf|archive-date=2005-09-06|access-date=2005-05-24|format=PDF}}</ref>
# 食物定位


== 數量和捕鲸 ==
== 數量和捕鲸 ==

2023年1月5日 (四) 08:48的版本

蓝鲸
化石时期:更新世前期至今, 1.5–0 Ma
一頭出現在東太平洋海域的成年藍鯨
與人類體型的對比
科学分类 编辑
界: 动物界 Animalia
门: 脊索动物门 Chordata
纲: 哺乳纲 Mammalia
目: 偶蹄目 Artiodactyla
下目: 鲸下目 Cetacea
科: 须鲸科 Balaenopteridae
属: 须鲸属 Balaenoptera
种:
蓝鲸 B. musculus
二名法
Balaenoptera musculus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
亞種
  • B. m. brevicauda Ichihara, 1966
  • ?B. m. indica Blyth, 1859
  • B. m. intermedia Burmeister, 1871
  • B. m. musculus Linnaeus, 1758
藍鯨的棲息範圍

藍鯨學名Balaenoptera musculus)是屬於须鲸小目的海洋哺乳動物。藍鯨是地球史上最大的動物,有记录最大长度29.9米,体重可达199吨。藍鯨的身軀瘦長,呈流线型,背部青灰色,下身颜色比較淡。目前已知藍鯨至少有四個亞種:生活在北大西洋和北太平洋的北方蓝鲸(B. m. musculus);棲息在南冰洋的南极蓝鲸(B. m. intermedia);棲息在印度洋和南太平洋的侏儒藍鯨(B. m. brevicauda);印度洋的北印度洋蓝鲸(B. m. indica)。在智利附近水域或许还存在有第五个亚种。

一般而言,蓝鲸群体会在夏季前往极地附近的捕食点,冬季则返回热带附近的繁殖点。也有证据显示存在全年的定居,以及部分或基于年龄或性别的迁徙。與其他鬚鯨一樣,藍鯨采取滤食捕食方式,主要以磷蝦為食。它们一般单独行动,或组成小团体,除母亲与幼崽外无其它明确的社会关系结构。蓝鲸叫声基本频率在8到25赫兹之间,取决于地区、季节、行为、早晚差异,叫声或有不同。虎鲸是其唯一自然捕食者。

直到20世紀初,地球上幾乎每片海域中藍鯨的數量都相當多。而后捕鯨者的獵殺使牠們幾乎滅絕,直到国际捕鲸委员会在1966年開始保育藍鯨後,它们的數量才逐漸回升。2018年,國際自然保護聯盟将蓝鲸列为濒危物种。如今,蓝鲸仍面临许多人类带来的威胁,例如船舶撞击、环境污染、海洋声音污染气候变化等。

分類和演化

命名

蓝鲸的属名 Balaenoptera 意为须鲸[2],学名 musculus 來自於拉丁語,有“強健”的意思,但也可以譯為“小老鼠”。[3]卡尔·林奈在1758年的開創性著作《自然系統》中完成了該種類的命名,他可能知道這一點,然後幽默地用了這個帶有諷刺意味的雙關語[4][5][6][2]关于蓝鲸最早发表的描述来自罗伯特·西巴德英语Robert Sibbald的《Phalainologia Nova》[7],其源于西巴德于1692年在苏格兰福斯湾观察到的鲸鱼群。名称“蓝鲸”来自挪威语blåhval”,由改良了捕鲸炮的斯文·福因恩英语Svend Foyn创造。1874年,挪威科学家耶奥格·萨尔斯采用这个名称为其俗名[8]

其他常見的名稱還有西巴德鯨、塞巴氏须鲸,来自蓝鲸的最初描述者罗伯特·西巴德。[7]赫尔曼·梅尔维尔在其小说《白鯨記》中稱蓝鲸為硫磺底(英語:sulphur-bottom[9],因為矽藻附著在藍鯨的皮膚上,使得牠們的下側呈現橘棕色或淡黃色,因此其也称为磺底鲸[6][10]此外还有大藍鯨(英語:great blue whale)、大北鬚鯨巨北须鲸(英語:great northern rorqual)等名称,不過近幾十年來這些名稱漸漸被人們所遺忘。

分类

雖然藍鯨通常被歸類在鬚鯨屬,但也有學者將牠歸類在單型屬——藍鯨屬(Sibbaldus)中,不过這種分類方法並沒有被其他學者接受。[11][12]至少发现有四个蓝鲸亚种,其中有些还被进一步分为族群集团或“管理单元(英語:management units)”。蓝鲸在全球都有分布,但很少出现在在北冰洋地中海鄂霍次克海白令海[13]

Aerial photograph of an adult blue whale showing its length
成年蓝鲸航拍图

蓝鲸的四个亚种分别为:

智利附近海域的蓝鲸族群有独特的叫声,并且因为地理分隔导致的遗传分离,它们或许可被归为新的亚种。[14][15][16]智利蓝鲸在东热带太平洋英语Tropical Eastern Pacific可能与南极亚种和东北大西洋族群有交集。智利蓝鲸与南极亚种基因不同,因此不太可能杂交。但它们与东北大西洋族群遗传差异较小,可能存在基因流动。[17]

演化

须鲸科

小鬚鯨

B. musculus (蓝鲸)

B. borealis (塞鯨)

Eschrichtius robustus (灰鯨)

B. physalus (長鬚鯨)

Megaptera novaeangliae (大翅鲸)

六种须鲸的系统发生树[18]

藍鯨属于鬚鯨科,這個科的成員還包括座头鲸塞鯨布氏鯨小鬚鯨[19] 根据2018年的一项分析,须鲸科大约在1048到498万年前的中新世与其它亲缘物种分离。[18]最早的解剖学现代蓝鲸化石发现于意大利南部,年代约在距今150-250万年的更新世早期。[20]澳大利亚侏儒鲸在末次冰盛期分离,较短的分离时间导致它们的遗传多样性相对较低[21],新西兰蓝鲸的遗传多样性则更低。[22]

对蓝鲸的全基因测序表明,蓝鲸与塞鲸的亲缘最近,与灰鲸姐妹群。研究还发现在小须鲸与蓝鲸、塞鲸祖先之间存在基因流动。蓝鲸也表现出很高的遗传多样性。[18]

杂交

已知蓝鲸会与長鬚鯨杂交。最早有记录的蓝鲸与长须鲸的杂交后代是一体长20米的雌性个体,它同时具备蓝鲸和长须鲸的特征,生活在太平洋北部。[23]1984年在西班牙西北海域捕获的一头鲸鱼被发现其父母分别为长须鲸和蓝鲸。[24]

记录有两头长须鲸-蓝鲸杂交后代生活在加拿大圣劳伦斯湾和葡萄牙亚速尔群岛。.[25]冰岛捕鲸公司Hvalur hf英语Hvalur hf.在2018年捕杀了一头杂交鲸鱼,DNA测试显示其父亲为长须鲸,母亲为蓝鲸。[26]不过该结果还有待复核,因为国际捕鲸委员会将蓝鲸认定为“保护物种”,捕杀属于必须上报的违规行为,交易它们的肉是非法的。[27]在日本鲸肉市场中也有检测到长须鲸-蓝鲸杂交种。[28]这种杂交物种是可育的。对1986年一头怀孕鲸鱼的分子检测发现,它的母亲是蓝鲸,父亲是长须鲸,它肚中胎儿的父亲是蓝鲸。[29]

根据海洋生物学家迈克尔·普尔的记录,在南太平洋存在有座头鲸-蓝鲸杂交种。[2][30]

特徵

從空中俯瞰一隻蓝鲸,可以見到兩邊的胸鳍

蓝鲸的身体呈流线型,头部类似宽阔的U字形;鳍肢窄长;背鳍小,约33厘米,呈镰刀形,靠近尾部;巨大的尾鳍依附在鲸尾末端。蓝鲸上颚排列有70-395个鯨鬚板,喉咙区域有60-88个凹槽,允许进食时皮肤的扩张。[31][6][10][32][33]它有两个喷气孔,並受到一個巨大「防護罩」的保護,喷出的水柱可达9.1-12.2米。[31][34][2][35]皮肤为斑驳的灰白色调,在水下时呈蓝色。[31][36][34]不同个体在靠近背鰭处的斑纹样式不同。[37][38][39]肚子下方的皮肤颜色较浅,可能因矽藻附著而呈黄色[31][36][34],因此过去也有人称蓝鲸为“硫磺底”。[40][41]蓝鲸有所有动物中最大的阴茎,长度可达3米,直径30厘米。[42]

藍鯨的鰭肢長3-4公尺。胸鰭的上方呈灰色,並有狹窄的白色邊緣,而下方則是全白的。牠們的頭部和尾鰭一般為灰色。藍鯨背部通常是雜色的,有時胸鰭也是這個顏色。斑紋變化的程度則因個體而有所不同。有些個體可能全身都是灰色的,但是其他的個體則是深藍,灰色和黑色互相混合在一起[19]

體型

蓝鲸头骨照片
一个长度5.8米的蓝鲸头骨

体长

藍鯨是地球上出現過體型最大的動物。[35][31][43][44][45]最大的藍鯨的數據尚未完全確定。大部分資料來自20世紀上半葉,人類在南極海域捕殺的藍鯨,不過這些資料的来源是不精通标准动物测量方法的捕鲸人。国际捕鲸委员会的数据库中有88头体长超过30米的蓝鲸,其中体型最大的两只雌性蓝鲸超过33米,分別為33.6米和33.3米。[46]不过部分测量方法有不准确之处,体长超过30.5米的记录仍有争论。[47]弗兰克群岛发现委员会英语Discovery Committee曾报告有体长达到31米的蓝鲸。[48]有科学证明的最大蓝鲸体长为29.9米,数据来自美國國家海洋哺乳動物實驗室英语National Marine Mammal Laboratory,测量范围从蓝鲸吻突尖端至尾巴缺口处。[49][50]通常雌性蓝鲸体型大于雄性,不同于雄性大于雌性的齿鲸[10][51]流体力学模型指出,鉴于代谢与能量限制,蓝鲸的体长不会超过33米。[52]相比之下,目前已知最大的恐龍是生活在中生代阿根廷龍[53],估計重達90噸,雖然一具受到爭議的雙腔龍脊椎骨可能顯示出這種生物可以達到122噸重,長40至60米。[54]另外一種數據尚未完全確定的巨體龍估計重達185-250噸,超過最大的藍鯨的180噸。

蓝鲸北方亚种东北太平洋族群的成年雌性平均体长22米,中西太平洋族群24米,北大西洋族群21-24米,南极亚种25.4-26.3米,智利亚种23.5米,侏儒蓝鲸21.3米。[47][55][56]

体重

因為藍鯨的體積太過巨大,过去很難測量牠們的體重。許多捕鯨人所獵殺的藍鯨並沒有完全測量過重量,因為他們首先會將鯨魚切成容易處理的大小,這導致藍鯨的總重量被低估,因為牠們的血液與體液都流失掉了。儘管如此,仍然有重150至180噸,長27米的藍鯨被紀錄。一隻長30米的個體被美國國家海洋哺乳類研究室認為其重量超過了180噸。直到目前為止,國家海洋哺乳類研究室的科學家精確測量過最巨大的藍鯨是一隻重177噸的雌鯨。[49]

生活在北半球的雄性蓝鲸平均体重100吨,雌性112吨。东北太平洋族群雄性蓝鲸平均体重88.5吨,雌性100吨。大西洋族群雄性蓝鲸平均体重112吨,雌性130吨。侏儒蓝鲸雄性平均体重83.5吨-99吨。[57]有记录体重最重的蓝鲸超过173吨[58],估计达199吨。[59]

藍鯨的舌頭大約重2.7噸[60],當它全部伸展開來時可以攫取90噸重的食物與海水。[61]即使擁有這樣巨大的嘴,藍鯨的喉嚨仍然無法吞下沙灘球那樣寬的物體。[62]牠們的心臟有汽车大小,北大西洋蓝鲸族群的心脏平均重180千克,是已知的生物中最巨大的。[60][63]藍鯨的主動脈約23厘米寬。[64]在出生後的7個月內,幼鯨每天要喝400升母乳。幼鯨的生長速度很快,體重每24小時增加90公斤。即使才剛出生,幼鯨的體重就能達到2,700公斤——相當於一头成年河馬的體重。[19]

寿命

蓝鲸的寿命大约在80-90年,但是由於個體的記錄無法回溯至捕鯨時代,所以要得知藍鯨的確切壽命還要經過很多年。[46][65][66][10]科学家通常根据蓝鲸的耳垢或耳塞估算它们的年龄。每年因捕食或迁徙时的禁食,蓝鲸积累的耳垢颜色深浅不同,科学家可根据这些颜色差别判断其年龄。[67][68][69]侏儒蓝鲸的最大年龄估计为73年。[70]此外,雌性蓝鲸每次排卵都会在卵巢上留下疤痕或黄体,这也可作为估算年龄的依据。[71]雌性蓝鲸的黄体形成周期约为2.6年。[70]

行為

蓝鲸呼吸時产生的水柱

蓝鲸通常单独活动,但偶尔也观察到结伴行为。在食物充足时,可有多达50头蓝鲸聚集。[10]蓝鲸群可能会一同长途迁徙至位于极地附近的夏天捕食点,然后在冬天到来时返回热带水域附近的繁殖点。[72]蓝鲸似乎能够记住最佳捕食区域的位置。[73]除定期迁徙外,有些蓝鲸也会全年在同一区域定居,或是群体中的部分成员,或其中特定性别、年龄成员迁徙。有些蓝鲸会在繁殖点附近捕食。[74]蓝鲸的游动速度约为5-30km/h,短距離衝刺的速度可以達到50km/h,通常發生在和其他鯨魚互动時。[10][19]當牠們哺乳的時候,速度會降到5km/h。

有标记的蓝鲸最大潜水深度达到315米。[75]理论最大潜水时间约31.2分钟[76],不过有记录的最久时间为15.2分钟。[75]经确认的蓝鲸最大潜水深度达510米。[77]在深水中,蓝鲸的心跳可下降至2次每分钟,重新返回水面后心跳速度恢复至37次每分钟,接近其最高心跳速度。[78]

藍鯨在自然界中唯一的天敵是虎鯨[79]研究報告顯示25%的成年藍鯨都有虎鯨攻擊留下的傷痕[46],但是攻擊造成的死亡率目前還沒有確切的資料。

藍鯨的擱淺事件非常少見,而且因為牠們的社會結構,所以從來沒有记录到藍鯨發生群體擱淺。[80]但是當擱淺發生時,將會受到社會大眾的關注。1920年,一隻藍鯨在蘇格蘭外赫布裏底群島路易士島海灘擱淺,牠的頭部被捕鯨人射中,但魚叉卻沒有爆炸。和其他動物一樣,藍鯨凭借本能不惜一切代價堅持呼吸,擱淺可以讓牠不至於溺死。路易士島上兩根矗立在大道旁的藍鯨骨頭吸引了大量遊客。[81]

繁殖

一頭未成年的藍鯨與雌鯨

蓝鲸在8-10岁时性成熟。北半球雌性蓝鲸此时的体长为21-23米,雄性体长20-21米。南半球性成熟雌性蓝鲸体长23-24米,雄性22米。[82]侏儒蓝鲸性成熟年龄是10岁[55][56][83],此时雌性体长21.0-21.7米,雄性体长18.7米。[55][84][85]对于蓝鲸的交配、繁殖行为及分娩区域所知甚少。[45][82]蓝鲸为一夫多妻制,雄性之间相互竞争,以取得与雌性的交配权。[82][86]雄性蓝鲸会跟踪雌性,并会击退其它潜在的雄性竞争者。[87]繁殖季节从晚秋持续至冬末。[65][45][82]

怀孕的雌性蓝鲸每天进食相当于体重4%的食物,在整个夏季觅食期获得60%的体重。[88][82][89]孕期约10-12个月,刚出生的幼鲸体长6-7米,体重2-3吨。[82]估计幼鲸需要每2-4千克母乳中获得1千克体重,雌性蓝鲸每天可产生220千克母乳。[90]2016年,在新西兰附近海域首次拍摄到了蓝鲸哺育幼鲸的影像。[91]幼鲸在6-8个月时断奶,此时的体长为16米。它们在哺乳期获得17吨体重。[44]蓝鲸生育间隔为2到3年[82],侏儒蓝鲸的平均生育间隔为2.6年。[70]

捕食

藍鯨小型背鰭在照片左側隱約可見

藍鯨幾乎只捕食磷蝦[10]它们使用衝刺進食,张嘴可达80°,并以高速游向食物。[10][92]捕食时它们可一次吞下220吨海水。[93]蓝鲸借助其腹腔和舌头的压力,由鲸须板将这些海水排出,然后吞下剩余的磷蝦。[10][92]當藍鯨捕食磷蝦時,偶爾也會吞進小型魚類、甲殼類與烏賊。[94][95]有记录蓝鲸在衝刺進食时进行了180°转弯,这允许它们调整位置,找到猎物密度最高的位置。[96]

为最大化能量摄入,蓝鲸在捕食磷虾群时会选择密度最大的虾群发起冲击。这使它们在日常能量消耗外仍保留有足够的额外能量用于迁徙与繁殖。磷虾密度需要达到100只/m³,蓝鲸的能量收入才可高于消耗。[92][97]一次进食可摄取34,776–1,912,680千焦(8,312–457,141卡路里)的能量,这些能量最多可供蓝鲸进行240次衝刺進食动作。[92]估计一只平均体型蓝鲸每天需要进食1,120 ± 359千克磷虾。[98][99]有時候牠們一天會捕食5,000千克的磷蝦。[100]

蓝鲸通常会避免与其它须鲸的直接竞争。[101][102][103]不同鲸鱼会选择不同的捕食场地、时间和猎物。[104][105][93]南冰洋的不同须鲸捕食不同大小的南极磷虾,这或许可以减少它们之间的竞争。[106]

發聲

蓝鲸可发出所有动物中最响亮、频率最低的声音[107],并且它们的内耳也十分适应探测低频声音。[108]研究者通過距離藍鯨1米參考壓力一毫帕的測量,估計藍鯨的聲音在源頭處可以達到155-188分貝[109][110]蓝鲸的基础发声频率为8-25赫兹[111],鲸歌因族群不同而有差异。[112]

蓝鲸东北大西洋族群的发声有较为详细的研究。它们的声音被总结为四个音符:脉冲声(A)、音调声(B)、紧接在B后的上扬声(C),以及下降音(D)。[113][114]A和B通常在蓝鲸相互交流时重复发出,并且只有雄性蓝鲸才会使用这两个声音,这或许表明它们与交配活动相关。[114][115]D音或许有多种不同功用,两种性别蓝鲸在捕食时的交互中都可发出D音[115][116],雄性与其它个体竞争时也会发出D音。[87]

曾有记录在斯里兰卡海域的蓝鲸创作的三节鲸歌。首节是频率为19.8-43.5赫兹的脉冲声,通常持续17.9 ± 5.2秒。第二节频率为55.9-72.4赫兹调频,持续时间13.8 ± 1.1秒。末节频率108-104.7赫兹,时长28.5 ± 1.6秒。[117]在马达加斯加有记录到2节鲸歌[118],首节为5-7次中心频率为35.1 ± 0.7赫兹,持续4.4 ± 0.5秒,第二节35 ± 0赫兹持续10.9 ± 1.1秒。[117]记录到南冰洋蓝鲸产生的18秒鲸歌,先是9秒时长,27赫兹叫声,然后是1秒钟至19赫兹的降调,随后降调至18赫兹。[119][120]其它叫声还包括1-4秒时长,频率为80和38赫兹调频。[120][121]

有证据表明蓝鲸的叫声频率正随时间下降。[122][123][124]自1960年代至21世纪初,蓝鲸东北太平洋族群的叫声频率下降了31%。[122][123]从2002年起,生活在南极附近的侏儒蓝鲸叫声频率逐年下降十分之几赫兹。[124]其中原因可能是由于蓝鲸族群数量的恢复,性选择压力逐渐升高(频率更低的叫声意味着更大的体型)。[123]

科学家曾提出了以下六種可能的蓝鲸发声原因:保持個體間的距離;同類和個體識別;環境資訊傳遞(例如覓食,警告,求偶);保持群體聯繫(例如雌性和雄性間的交流);地貌特徵定位;食物定位。[125]

數量和捕鲸

捕鯨時代

因為商業捕鯨業的發展,所以藍鯨的數量快速的下降

藍鯨不易捕捉與宰殺。牠們的速度和力量意味著藍鯨很少成為早期捕鯨人的目標[126]1864年,挪威人斯文德·福因(Svend Foyn)使用魚叉搭配輪船,設計來捕捉大型鯨魚。雖然最初很麻煩,成功的機率又低,不過福因進一步的改善了魚叉,於是很快的挪威北部芬馬克郡的幾個捕鯨站開始使用這種方法來捕鯨。因為當地漁夫之間發生爭論,芬馬克郡最後一處捕鯨站於是在1904年關閉。[來源請求]

很快,藍鯨就在冰島(1883年)、法羅群島(1894年)、紐芬蘭(1898年)與斯匹次卑爾根島(1903年)等地開始被捕殺。在1904年至1905年之間,美國喬治亞州南部捕獲第一隻藍鯨。到了1925年時,隨著工廠船船尾台的出現與蒸汽動力鯨捕船的使用,藍鯨與全部的鬚鯨被捕的數量在南極與次南極海域開始急劇增加。從1930年至1931年間,單單在南極海域就有29,400隻藍鯨被捕殺。到了第二次世界大戰結束時,藍鯨的數量已經減少相當多了。在1946年時,首次引進了国际鲸鱼交易配额限制,但是因为没有考虑到不同物种之間的区别,所以这些配额並沒有奏效。表示数量稀有的种類和数量较多的种類被人類进行相等程度的捕杀活動。到1960年代,国际捕鲸委员会开始禁止獵捕蓝鲸[127][128],而蘇聯進行的非法捕鯨活動則在1970年代停止[129]。此时已經有超過380,000隻蓝鲸被杀,其中在南極海域有330,000隻,33,000隻在南半球的其他地區,8,200隻在北太平洋地區,在北大西洋則有7,000隻。原本在南極最大的集團數量已經下降到只剩捕鯨活動前的0.15%[130]

捕鯨活動明顯導致藍鯨幾乎滅絕,而不是獵捕較少的數量以換取較長的獵捕期間,捕鯨者繼續減少藍鯨數量。現在看來,捕鯨業顧及由海洋生物學家制定的監測和限制,使得更多鯨魚可能有商業上的價值,儘管是一個較長的時間跨度。長壽的海洋哺乳類的族群動態與壽命較短的魚類相當的不同。因為較長生育期(超過1年)與比較少胎(1次1或2胎),鯨魚數量恢復所需的時間比起體型較小的動物更長。[來源請求]

目前的數量及分佈

出現在亞速群島附近的藍鯨
一隻露出尾鰭的藍鯨,位於美國加州海峽群島附近海域

自從禁止捕鯨以來,研究無法確定目前藍鯨的數量正在增加還是沒有顯著的改變。最精確的估計顯示,南極地區的藍鯨數量在蘇聯非法捕鯨結束之後每年以7.3%的速度成長,雖然整體的數量仍然不足原本的1%[130]。研究也顯示棲息在冰島與加拿大的藍鯨也正在增加,即使幅度未達顯著性差異。在2002年時,科學家估計全球的藍鯨介於5,000與12,000隻之間,雖然在許多區域的估計是高度的不確定性[49]。藍鯨目前仍然名列世界自然保護聯盟瀕危物種紅色名錄的瀕危物種中,就跟名單開始編製時一樣。目前已知最大的藍鯨群體是由大約2,000隻個體(北方藍鯨)所組成的,集中在阿拉斯加哥斯大黎加之間,不過最常見的海域是夏季時的加利福尼亞州有時候這些藍鯨會出現在西北太平洋海域,曾有藍鯨出現在堪察加半島日本北端之間海域的罕見紀錄。[來源請求]

在北大西洋已經有兩個藍鯨集團(B. m. musculus)被確認。第一個位於格陵蘭紐芬蘭新斯科舍聖勞倫斯灣外海,估計數量有500隻左右。第二個集團更靠近東邊,牠們春季出現在亞述爾群島,而7、8月份時則出現在冰島附近海域。根據推測這些鯨群沿著大西洋中脊在這兩個火山島之間來活動。除了冰島,藍鯨還會出現在更北方的斯瓦爾巴群島揚馬延島,雖然相當少見。不過科學家仍然不清楚這些藍鯨在哪裡過冬。整個北大西洋的族群數量估計在600-1500隻之間。[來源請求]

在南半球目前已知有2個確切的亞種:南藍鯨(B. m. intermedia)與在印度洋發現、所知不多的侏儒藍鯨(B. m. brevicauda)。最近許多調查的結果顯示生活在南冰洋的亞種的數量介於1100[131]至1700隻[130]之間。而侏儒藍鯨的研究則正在進行中。1996年一項調查顯示僅在馬達加斯加南方一個小範圍海域的之中,就棲息著424隻藍鯨[132]。這項調查似乎表示是藍鯨在整個印度洋的數量是數以千計的。如果這是事實,全球的藍鯨數量將會比估計的更高[133]

藍鯨第4個亞種 B. m. indica是由艾德華·布萊(Edward Blyth)於1859年時在北印度洋所確認的,但是由於特徵辨識上的困難,導致它被當成B. m. musculus的一個異名。目前這個亞種被認為與侏儒藍鯨是同一個種。根據蘇聯捕鯨者的紀錄顯示雌鯨比成B. m. musculus更接近侏儒藍鯨,雖然B. m. indica與侏儒藍鯨的分布範圍是分開的,而且繁殖期間相差幾乎有6個月之久[134]

這些亞種的遷移模式仍然是未知的。舉例來說:侏儒藍鯨在北印度洋(阿曼、馬爾地夫與斯里蘭卡)被觀測到,牠們在這裡組成獨特的棲息集團。除此之外,在智利與秘魯外海出現的藍鯨也可能是一個明顯的群體。一些棲息在南極海域的藍鯨會在冬季接近南大西洋的東部,有時牠們發出的叫聲可以在秘魯、西澳大利亞與北印度洋觀測到。因為最近在奇洛埃島(Chiloé)海域發現藍鯨群體覓食的跡象,所以智利鯨魚保護中心智利海軍的支持下,正在對藍鯨進行廣泛的研究和保護。奇洛埃島一個稱為「Golfo del Corcovado」的地區在2007年夏季確實有時候可以觀察到有326隻鯨魚出現在沿海。[來源請求]

藍鯨的數量能夠更精確的估計受到杜克大學海洋動物學家很大的幫助,因為他們保存了龐大數量空間生態分析-海洋生物地理信息系統(OBIS-SEAMAP),這是一個存大約130個來源收集目擊海洋哺乳類動物資料的比對系統[135]

中国附近的重要出沒紀錄

其他威脅

與船隻發生碰撞或受困、糾纏在捕漁設備中時,藍鯨可能會受傷;海裡越来越多的噪音使他们难以互相沟通,甚至可能丧命[13]。人類對於藍鯨的潛在威脅包括製造會在藍鯨體內累積的化學物品多氯聯二苯(PCB)。

隨著全球暖化導致冰川永久凍土層快速融化,並導致大量的淡水注入海中。有人擔心一旦流入海中的淡水量超過臨界點,將會導致溫鹽環流瓦解。考量到藍鯨根據海水溫度的遷移模式,環流瓦解將導致溫暖與寒冷的海水環繞全球,這可能會對藍鯨的遷徙造成影響[137]。藍鯨夏季時處在寒冷、高緯度的海域,因為這裡擁有豐富的食物;而冬季時則位於溫暖、低緯度的海域,在這裡牠們可以交配與生產[138]

海洋溫度的改變也會影響藍鯨的食物來源,暖化趨勢也會減少鹽分的分布,這將會對的分布與密度造成重大的影響[139]

流行文化

位於加利福尼亞大學聖塔克魯茲分校海洋實驗室外的藍鯨骨架模型。

倫敦自然史博物館分別保存了一具著名的藍鯨骨架以及一具與蓝鲸真實大小相同的模型,两具都是全球首見的,不過加利福尼亞大學聖克魯茲分校後來也仿照這種方法展出。紐約的美國自然史博物館的海洋生物廳中也展示了一具藍鯨真實大小的模型。賞鯨船隻可能會在缅因湾遇見活生生的藍鯨[140],主要的觀賞地點則沿著聖羅倫斯灣聖羅倫斯河河口[13]。藍鯨曾在1967年電影怪醫杜立德》(Doctor Dolittle)中出現,並作為巨大體積與力量的象徵,因為在劇中牠可以移動一個島。

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延伸阅读

书籍

  • Randall R. Reeves, Brent S. Stewart, Phillip J. Clapham and James A. Powell (2002). National Audubon Society Guide to Marine Mammals of the World. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. ISBN 978-0-375-41141-0. pp. 89–93.
  • J. Calambokidis and G. Steiger (1998). Blue Whales. Voyageur Press. ISBN 978-0-89658-338-2.
  • Bortolotti, Dan. 藍鯨誌. 由龐, 元媛翻译. 貓頭鷹出版. 2010. ISBN 9789861202914. 
  • Honeyborne, James; Brownlow, Mark. 重返藍色星球:發現海洋新世界. 由林, 潔盈翻译. 好讀出版. 2018. ISBN 9789861784618. 

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