三乙基铝

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三乙基铝
Skeletal formula of triethylaluminium dimer
Ball-and-stick model of the triethylaluminium dimer molecule
IUPAC名
Triethylalumane
别名 乙基铝
识别
缩写 TEA,[1] TEAl,[2] TEAL[3]
CAS号 97-93-8  ✓
PubChem 16682930
ChemSpider 10179159
SMILES
InChI
InChIKey VOITXYVAKOUIBA-DVVALISXAR
EINECS 202-619-3
性质
化学式 C12H30Al2
摩尔质量 228.33 g·mol−1
外观 无色液体
密度 0.8324 g·cm−3(25 °C)
熔点 −52.5 °C(220.7 K)[4]
沸点 128-130 °C(401-403 K)(50 mmHg)[5]
危险性
警示术语 R:R14 R17 R34
安全术语 S:S16 S43 S45
主要危害 易自燃
NFPA 704
NFPA 704.svg
4
3
3
 
闪点 −18 °C(255 K)
相关物质
相关化学品 三甲基铝
若非注明,所有数据均出自一般条件(25 ℃,100 kPa)下。

三乙基铝是一种金属有机化合物,化学式为Al2(C2H5)6。它是挥发性的无色液体,遇空气自燃。它可以纯品保存于不锈钢容器中,或溶于烃类溶剂储存。它是齐格勒-纳塔催化剂的必要组分。[6]

制备[编辑]

三乙基铝可由氢气乙烯的化合反应制得:[7]

2 Al + 3 H2 + 6 C2H4 → Al2(C2H5)6

铝粉和氯乙烷反应,得到倍半氯化乙基铝英语Ethylaluminium sesquichloride,它经金属还原后得到三乙基铝:[8]

3 Al2Cl3(C2H5)3 + 9 Na → 2 Al2(C2H5)6 + 2 Al + 9 NaCl

此外,三丙基铝和乙烯反应[6]二乙基汞[6]三乙基镓英语Triethylgallium[9]在加热下和反应,也能制得三乙基铝。

反应[编辑]

三乙基铝的Al–C键具有极性,接受质子后放出乙烷[10]

Al2(C2H5)6 + 6 HX → 2 AlX3 + 6 C2H6

像醇或端基炔烃这样的弱酸也能参与反应,例如它和异丙醇反应,得到二乙基异丙醇铝;[11]苯乙炔反应,得到二乙基(苯乙炔基)铝。[12]

它和四氯化锡乙醚中反应,得到三乙基氯化锡。[13]它和氯化锌反应,生成二乙基锌[7]

Al2(C2H5)6 + ZnCl2 → Zn(C2H5)2 + 2 (C2H5)2AlCl

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ Mission Status Center, June 2, 2010, 1905 GMT Archived 2010-06-04 at WebCite, SpaceflightNow, accessed 2010-06-02, Quotation: "The flanges will link the rocket with ground storage tanks containing liquid oxygen, kerosene fuel, helium, gaserous nitrogen and the first stage ignitor source called triethylaluminum-triethylborane, better known as TEA-TAB."
  2. ^ Gulbrandsen Chemicals, Metal Alkyls: Triethylaluminum (TEAl). Gulbrandsen. [December 12, 2017]. (原始内容存档于2017-12-13). Triethylaluminum (TEAl) is a pyrophoric liquid... 
  3. ^ Malpass, Dennis B.; Band, Elliot. Introduction to Industrial Polypropylene: Properties, Catalysts Processes. John Wiley & Sons. 2012. ISBN 9781118463208. 
  4. ^ Pitzer, Kenneth S.; Gutowsky, Herbert S. Electron-deficient molecules. II. Aluminum alkyls. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1946. 68: 2204-2209. ISSN: 0002-7863. doi:10.1021/ja01215a027
  5. ^ Gallais, Fernand; de Loth, Philippe. Magnetooptical properties of two trialkylaluminums and of their addition compounds with aliphatic ethers. Compt. Rend., 1962. 255. 2755-2756.
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 6.2 无机化学丛书 第二卷 铍 碱土金属 硼 铝 镓分族. 科学出版社. pp 498. 7.3 有机铝化合物
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 Michael J. Krause, Frank Orlandi, Alfred T. Saurage, Joseph R. Zietz Jr. "Aluminum Compounds, Organic" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2002, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a01_543
  8. ^ Krause, M. J; Orlandi, F; Saurage, A T.; Zietz, J R, "Organic Aluminum Compounds" Wiley-Science 2002.
  9. ^ Starowieyski, Kazimierz; Kruk, Przemyslaw. Process for preparation of trialkylaluminum compounds from metallic aluminum by transmetalation with trialkylgallium compounds. 2006. PL 192855 B1.
  10. ^ Elschenbroich, C. ”Organometallics” (2006) Wiley-VCH: Weinheim. ISBN 978-3-527-29390-2
  11. ^ Kunicki, A. R.; Pasynkiewicz, S.; Jankowski, J.; Mank, B. Alkoxyalumoxanes (ROAlO)n - Synthesis and properties. Polish Journal of Chemistry, 2004. 78 (10): 1857-1864. ISSN: 0137-5083.
  12. ^ Kanbur, Uddhav; Ellern, Arkady; Sadow, Aaron D. Alkynylaluminum Synthesis Catalyzed by a Zwitterionic Neodymium(III) Heterobimetallic Compound. Organometallics, 2018. 37 (23): 4409-4414. ISSN: 0276-7333. doi:10.1021/acs.organomet.8b00374
  13. ^ Neumann, Wilhelm P. Organotin compounds. I. New methods of preparation for tin tetraalkyls and alkyltin halides. Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1962. 653. 157-163. ISSN: 0075-4617.