中期記憶

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中期記憶英語:Intermediate-term memory)是記憶的一個階段,不同於感覺記憶短期記憶/工作記憶,和長期記憶[1][2] 閃光燈記憶能維持幾毫秒, 工作記憶能維持到三十秒,長期記憶能維持三十分鐘到一個人生命的結束,中期記憶能維持兩到三小時。[3] 這些記憶處理的持續時間中,這些記憶的重疊意味著它們同時發生,而不是依次發生。 事實上,記憶成為中期記憶可以在長期沒有回憶的情況下產生。[4] 然而,這些記憶形式之間的界限並不明確,它們可能因事件而異。[5] 中期記憶被認為是由海馬皮質所記憶的。[6]

在1993年, 羅森茨維格及其同事在用厭惡刺激調理的大鼠中證明了它,避免遭受厭惡刺激的大鼠的百分比(並暗示了刺激物的厭惡性質的記憶)分別於一分鐘後,十五分鐘後以及六十分鐘後到達極值[7] 理論上這些下降對應於老鼠從工作記憶切換到中期記憶的時間點,從中期記憶到長期記憶的早期階段, 以及從長期記憶的早期階段到長期記憶的晚期階段,從而表明存在著在工作記憶和長期記憶之間存在的一種形式的記憶,這被稱為“中期記憶”。

雖然中期記憶的觀念自1990年代以來一直存在,薩頓等人於2001年介紹了海兔 中期記憶神經相關性的新穎理論,在那裡他們將其描述為中期簡易化的主要行為表現形式。[8]

特徵[编辑]

2001年,薩頓及其同事提出,中期記憶具有以下三個特點:

機制[编辑]

感應[编辑]

因為中期記憶不涉及轉錄, 它可能關於已經存在於神經元中的mRNA轉錄物的轉譯。[3][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21]

和短期/工作記憶的差異[编辑]

與短期記憶和工作記憶不同,中期記憶需要發生改變轉譯方式的動作才能發揮作用。

和長期記憶的差異[编辑]

雖然中期記憶只需要轉譯的變化,但若要成為長期記憶,那麼也需要改變轉錄。 [22] 從短期記憶到長期記憶的變化被認為依賴於調節轉錄的CREB英语CREB,但是由於中期記憶不涉及轉錄的變化,所以被認為是獨立於CREB活動的。[3] 根據薩頓等人在2001年提出的中期記憶的定義 ,CREB在長期記憶被誘導之前是完全消失的。[8]

和年齡相關的中期記憶衰退[23]


參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ Grimes MT, Smith M, Li X, Darby-King A, Harley CW, McLean JH. Mammalian intermediate-term memory: new findings in neonate rat. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory. March 2011, 95 (3): 385–91. PMID 21296674. doi:10.1016/j.nlm.2011.01.012. 
  2. ^ Sutton MA, Carew TJ. Behavioral, cellular, and molecular analysis of memory in aplysia I: intermediate-term memory. Integrative and Comparative Biology. August 2002, 42 (4): 725–35. PMID 21708769. doi:10.1093/icb/42.4.725. 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 Lukowiak K, Adatia N, Krygier D, Syed N. Operant conditioning in Lymnaea: evidence for intermediate- and long-term memory. Learning & Memory. 2000, 7 (3): 140–50. PMC 311329. PMID 10837503. doi:10.1101/lm.7.3.140. 
  4. ^ Mauelshagen J, Sherff CM, Carew TJ. Differential induction of long-term synaptic facilitation by spaced and massed applications of serotonin at sensory neuron synapses of Aplysia californica. Learning & Memory. 1998, 5 (3): 246–56. PMC 313806. PMID 10454368. 
  5. ^ Raymond P. Kesner and Joe L. Martinez, Jr. (eds). Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 2nd edition. Nikki Levy, Academic Press. 2007: 284. ISBN 978-0-12-372540-0. 
  6. ^ Eichenbaum, H.; Otto, T.; Cohen, N. J. Two functional components of the hippocampal memory system. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 2010, 17 (3): 449–472. doi:10.1017/S0140525X00035391. 
  7. ^ Rosenzweig MR, Bennett EL, Colombo PJ, Lee DW, Serrano PA. Short-term, intermediate-term, and long-term memories. Behavioural Brain Research. November 1993, 57 (2): 193–8. PMID 8117424. doi:10.1016/0166-4328(93)90135-D. 
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 Sutton MA, Masters SE, Bagnall MW, Carew TJ. Molecular mechanisms underlying a unique intermediate phase of memory in aplysia. Neuron. July 2001, 31 (1): 143–54. PMID 11498057. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(01)00342-7. 
  9. ^ Parvez K, Stewart O, Sangha S, Lukowiak K. Boosting intermediate-term into long-term memory. The Journal of Experimental Biology. April 2005, 208 (Pt 8): 1525–36. PMID 15802676. doi:10.1242/jeb.01545. 
  10. ^ Sutton MA, Bagnall MW, Sharma SK, Shobe J, Carew TJ. Intermediate-term memory for site-specific sensitization in aplysia is maintained by persistent activation of protein kinase C. The Journal of Neuroscience. April 2004, 24 (14): 3600–9. PMID 15071108. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1134-03.2004. 
  11. ^ Stough S, Shobe JL, Carew TJ. Intermediate-term processes in memory formation. Current Opinion in Neurobiology. December 2006, 16 (6): 672–8. PMID 17097872. doi:10.1016/j.conb.2006.10.009. 
  12. ^ Sutton MA, Ide J, Masters SE, Carew TJ. Interaction between amount and pattern of training in the induction of intermediate- and long-term memory for sensitization in aplysia. Learning & Memory. 2002, 9 (1): 29–40. PMC 155928. PMID 11917004. doi:10.1101/lm.44802. 
  13. ^ Stough S, Shobe JL, Carew TJ. Intermediate-term processes in memory formation. Current Opinion in Neurobiology. December 2006, 16 (6): 672–8. PMID 17097872. doi:10.1016/j.conb.2006.10.009. 
  14. ^ Sutton MA, Schuman EM. Dendritic protein synthesis, synaptic plasticity, and memory. Cell. October 2006, 127 (1): 49–58. PMID 17018276. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.014. 
  15. ^ Zhao Y, Leal K, Abi-Farah C, Martin KC, Sossin WS, Klein M. Isoform specificity of PKC translocation in living Aplysia sensory neurons and a role for Ca2+-dependent PKC APL I in the induction of intermediate-term facilitation. The Journal of Neuroscience. August 2006, 26 (34): 8847–56. PMID 16928874. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1919-06.2006. 
  16. ^ Michel M, Green CL, Gardner JS, Organ CL, Lyons LC. Massed training-induced intermediate-term operant memory in aplysia requires protein synthesis and multiple persistent kinase cascades. The Journal of Neuroscience. March 2012, 32 (13): 4581–91. PMC 3329157. PMID 22457504. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.6264-11.2012. 
  17. ^ Antonov I, Kandel ER, Hawkins RD. Presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms of synaptic plasticity and metaplasticity during intermediate-term memory formation in Aplysia. The Journal of Neuroscience. April 2010, 30 (16): 5781–91. PMID 20410130. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4947-09.2010. 
  18. ^ Michel M, Gardner JS, Green CL, Organ CL, Lyons LC. Protein phosphatase-dependent circadian regulation of intermediate-term associative memory. The Journal of Neuroscience. March 2013, 33 (10): 4605–13. PMID 23467376. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4534-12.2013. 
  19. ^ Sutton MA, Carew TJ. Parallel molecular pathways mediate expression of distinct forms of intermediate-term facilitation at tail sensory-motor synapses in Aplysia. Neuron. April 2000, 26 (1): 219–31. PMID 10798406. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(00)81152-6. 
  20. ^ Parvez K, Moisseev V, Lukowiak K. A context-specific single contingent-reinforcing stimulus boosts intermediate-term memory into long-term memory. The European Journal of Neuroscience. July 2006, 24 (2): 606–16. PMID 16903862. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2006.04952.x. 
  21. ^ Zhang L, Ouyang M, Ganellin CR, Thomas SA. The slow afterhyperpolarization: a target of β1-adrenergic signaling in hippocampus-dependent memory retrieval. The Journal of Neuroscience. March 2013, 33 (11): 5006–16. PMID 23486971. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3834-12.2013. 
  22. ^ Braun MH, Lukowiak K. Intermediate and long-term memory are different at the neuronal level in Lymnaea stagnalis (L.). Neurobiology of Learning and Memory. September 2011, 96 (2): 403–16. PMID 21757019. doi:10.1016/j.nlm.2011.06.016. 
  23. ^ Tonoki, A; Davis, RL. Aging impairs intermediate-term behavioral memory by disrupting the dorsal paired medial neuron memory trace.. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2012-04-17, 109 (16): 6319–24. PMID 22474396. doi:10.1073/pnas.1118126109.  编辑