乙腈性质表

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乙腈的一些性质如下所述。

基本信息[编辑]

  • 中文名:乙jīng
  • 化学式:CH3CN(或写作MeCN)
  • CAS号:75-05-8
  • 英文名:Acetonitrile
  • 外观:无色液体

结构与性质[编辑]

结构与性质
折射率, nD 1.344 at 20.0°C [1]
阿贝数 ?
介电常数, εr 36.64 ε0 at 20 °C [1]
键偶极矩, 3.84 D
键强度 ?
键长 ?
键角 ?
磁化率 ?
黏度[2] 0.441 mPa·s at 0°C
0.343 mPa·s at 25°C
表面张力[2] 29.29 dyn/cm

热力学性质[编辑]

相性质
三相点[3] 229.32 K (–43.83 °C), 167 Pa
临界点 545 K (272 °C), 4.87 MPa
标准熔化焓变, ΔfusHo 8.167 kJ/mol (crystal I → liq)
标准熔化熵变, ΔfusSo 35.61 J/(mol·K) (crystal I → liq)
标准汽化焓变, ΔvapHo 33.225 kJ/mol at 25°C
29.75 at 81.6°C (BP)
标准汽化熵变, ΔvapSo 111.44 J/(mol·K) at 25°C
固体性质
标准摩尔生成焓, ΔfHosolid ? kJ/mol at 25°C
标准摩尔熵,
Sosolid
? J/(mol K)
热容量, cp 92.36 J/(mol K)at 298.15 K
标准相变焓变, ΔtrsHo 0.8979 kJ/mol at –56.2°C
(crystal II → crystal I)
标准相变熵变, ΔtrsSo 4.14 J/(mol·K) at –56.2°
(crystal II → crystal I)
液体性质
标准摩尔生成焓, ΔfHoliquid –40.56 kJ/mol
标准摩尔熵,
Soliquid
149.62 J/(mol K)
燃烧热, ΔcHo –1256.33 kJ/mol
热容量, cp 91.7 J/(mol K) at 25°C
Gas properties
标准摩尔生成焓, ΔfHogas –74.04 kJ/mol
标准摩尔熵,
Sogas
? J/(mol K)
燃烧热, cp ? J/(mol K)

液体蒸汽压[编辑]

压力(mmHg) 1 10 40 100 400 760
温度(°C) –47.0(s) –16.3 7.7 27.0 62.5 81.8

Table data obtained from CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 44th ed. The "(s)" notation indicates temperature of solid/vapor equilibrium. Otherwise the data is temperature of liquid/vapor equilibrium.

log10 of Acetonitrile vapor pressure. Uses formula obtained from CHERIC[2]

蒸馏数据[编辑]

Vapor-liquid Equilibrium for Acetonitrile/Water[4]
P = 760 mmHg
沸点(°C) 乙腈摩尔百分数
液相 气相
86.5 2.9 26.3
81.1 9.3 50.5
80.0 14.2 55.9
78.6 25.4 61.7
77.4 40.2 65.5
76.7 50.7 66.4
76.6 52.7 67.3
76.0 71.8 72.8
76.6 83.9 78.0
76.8 85.6 76.1
80.4 98.6 94.5
   
Vapor-liquid Equilibrium for Acetonitrile/Methanol[4]
P = 760 mmHg
沸点(°C) 甲醇摩尔百分数
液相 气相
79.20 2.5 9.5
77.95 4.0 13.5
76.77 5.5 17.5
75.12 9.7 26.5
73.12 14.0 33.0
72.07 17.0 37.5
70.96 20.0 420
68.85 24.7 45.5
68.39 28.9 50.5
66.00 41.5 59.5
65.35 47.0 62.5
64.75 54.5 65.5
64.34 63.0 71.5
64.03 69.0 74.5
63.80 74.5 78.9
63.77 82.5 82.5
63.76 86.0 86.0
63.87 90.0 88.0
64.05 93.0 91.5
64.18 95.0 93.0
64.40 97.0 95.5
   
Vapor-liquid Equilibrium for Acetonitrile/Benzene[4]
P = 760 mmHg
沸点(°C) 苯摩尔百分数
液相 气相
80.6 2.0 4.8
80.4 2.7 6.2
79.0 5.6 12.5
78.5 6.5 14.7
78.0 7.7 16.5
76.0 17.6 29.3
74.9 24.2 35.5
74.4 29.9 39.3
73.8 37.1 43.8
73.7 38.0 44.9
73.4 44.0 48.5
73.2 51.3 51.9
73.0 52.94 52.94
73.2 58.1 54.5
73.4 66.5 60.0
73.8 71.3 62.6
74.0 76.7 65.7
74.4 79.0 68.0
76.3 92.0 80.1
   
Vapor-liquid Equilibrium for Acetonitrile/Toluene[4]
P = 760 mmHg
沸点(°C) 甲苯摩尔百分数
液相 气相
81.5 3.3 5.1
81.4 6.9 8.1
81.1 12.18 12.18
81.3 18.2 15.4
81.4 22.1 17.2
81.8 28.4 19.5
82.7 37.5 23.0
84.4 53.3 28.4
85.6 60.5 31.5
91.1 78.5 41.7
93.4 84.0 47.3
95.6 87.6 52.6
101.2 92.9 66.5
103.6 95.6 73.8
106.7 97.7 83.6
107.5 98.2 85.4

光谱数据[编辑]

UV-Vis
λmax ? nm
消光系数, ε ?
IR
Major absorption bands[5]
(liquid film)
Wave number transmittance
3675 cm−1 79%
3544 cm−1 81%
3202 cm−1 77%
3164 cm−1 60%
3003 cm−1 52%
2944 cm−1 52%
2629 cm−1 81%
2410 cm−1 81%
2293 cm−1 44%
2254 cm−1 4%
1445 cm−1 30%
1378 cm−1 25%
1181 cm−1 84%
1040 cm−1 43%
918 cm−1 47%
750 cm−1 70%
NMR
1H NMR  
13C NMR]  
其它核磁共振数据  
MS
Masses of
主要碎片质量
 

化学反应方程式[编辑]

反应物 反应方程式 反应条件
作为配体
氧化亚铜六氟磷酸 Cu2O + 2 HPF6 + 8 CH3CN → 2 [Cu(CH3CN)4]PF6 + H2O
氟硼酸亚硝酰 Ni + 6 CH3CN + 2 NOBF4 → [Ni(CH3CN)6](BF4)2 + 2 NO

化学品安全技术说明书[编辑]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Sigma Aldrich Solvent Center. [22 May 2014]. 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 Pure Component Properties (Queriable database). Chemical Engineering Research Information Center. [15 May 2007]. (原始内容存档于3 June 2007). 
  3. ^ Vapor Pressures of Acetonitrile Determined by Comparative Ebulliometry, Michael B. Ewing* and Jesus C. Sanchez Ochoa, Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data 2004 49 (3), 486-491
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Binary Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data (Queriable database). Chemical Engineering Research Information Center. [15 May 2007]. 
  5. ^ Spectral Database for Organic Compounds. Advanced Industrial Science and Technology. [7 June 2007]. (原始内容 (Queriable database)存档于5 May 2006). 

不指明时,均指标准状态。其余信息参见Wikipedia:化学信息框