乙醇 (藥物)

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乙醇
乙醇的結構式
乙醇的球棍模型 乙醇的空間填充模型
系统(IUPAC)命名名称
ethanol
临床数据
读音/ˈɛθənɒl/
妊娠分级
  • US: C (不排除有风险的可能)
依赖性中等[1]
成瘾性中等(10–15%)[2]
给药途径常見:口服、局部塗抹
不常見:栓劑、吸入劑、眼劑、吹氣[3]、注射[4]
合法狀態
合法状态
药代动力学数据
生物利用度80%+[5][6]
蛋白结合度微弱,甚至完全沒有[5][6]
代谢肝臟:(90%)[7][8]
醇脫氫酶
MEOS (CYP2E1英语CYP2E1)
代谢产物乙醛乙酸盐乙酰辅酶A二氧化碳乙基葡萄糖醛酸酐英语Ethyl glucuronide硫酸乙酯
開始出現藥效最大濃度英语Cmax (pharmacology)[7][5]
• 範圍:30–90分鐘
•平均:45–60分鐘
禁食:30分鐘
生物半衰期一般濃度下是等速消除[9][8][7]
• 範圍:10–34 mg/dL/hour
• 平均(男性):15 mg/dL/hour
•平均(女性)18 mg/dL/hr
非常高濃度(t1/2): 4.0–4.5 小時[6][5]
作用时间6–16 小時(其濃度可偵測的時間)[10]
排泄• 主要:代谢(代謝為二氧化碳[5]
• 次要:尿呼吸汗液(5–10%)[7][5]
识别信息
CAS注册号64-17-5 ✓
ATC代码V03AZ01
PubChemCID 702
IUPHAR/BPS英语IUPHAR/BPS2299
DrugBankDB00898 ✓
ChemSpider682 ✓
UNII3K9958V90M ✓
KEGGD00068
ChEBICHEBI:16236 ✓
ChEMBL英语ChEMBLCHEMBL545 ✓
其他名称Absolute alcohol; Alcohol (USP); Cologne spirit; Drinking alcohol; Ethanol (JAN); Ethylic alcohol; EtOH; Ethyl alcohol; Ethyl hydrate; Ethyl hydroxide; Ethylol; Grain alcohol; Hydroxyethane; Methylcarbinol
PDB配体IDEOH (PDBe, RCSB PDB)
化学信息
化学式C2H6O
摩尔质量46.0684 g/mol
物理性质
密度0.7893 g/cm3 (at 20 °C)[11]
熔点−114.14正負0.03 °C(−173.45正負0.05 °F) [11]
沸点78.24正負0.09 °C(172.83正負0.16 °F) [11]
水溶液1000 mg/mL (20 °C)

酒精(英語:Alcohol)有時也稱為乙醇,是一種精神药物,也是酒類飲料(例如啤酒葡萄酒)及蒸馏酒中的活性成份[13]。是年代最早,也是最常見的娛樂性用藥,過度飲用會出現酒精中毒酒醉)的症狀[14]。酒精也可以帶來幸福感、欣快感降低焦慮英语anxiolytic、提昇社交性英语sociability鎮靜英语sedation,讓認知能力、記憶力運動機能英语motor function感官變差,一般而言也抑制中樞神經系統英语Depressant功能。酒精是類中的一種,不過是唯一會用在娛樂用途的醇類,也是會出現在酒精飲料中的唯一一種醇類,其他醇類,像是甲醇乙二醇2-丙醇都具有毒性[13]

酒精有許多短期及長期的不良反應。短期的不良反應包括神經認知功能變差、頭暈恶心呕吐以及類似宿醉的症狀。飲酒可能會成瘾,也就是酗酒,會有物質依賴的症狀,在減少飲酒後也會有戒斷症狀。酒精有許多長期的不良反應,例如肝臟受損英语hepatotoxicity[15]大腦受損[16],也是造成癌症病因的第五名英语alcohol and cancer[17]。酒精對健康的不良影響在過量飲酒或是頻繁飲酒時最明顯。不過其中有些副作用(例如增加特定種類癌症的風險)在輕度或是中度飲酒時就會出現[18]。若過量飲酒,可能會造成意識喪失英语loss of consciousness,嚴重甚至會致命。

酒精在腦部作用的機制是增加稱為γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)的神经递质的效果[19],GABA是腦部主要的抑制性神经递质。因此酒精可以抑制中樞神經系統的作用[19]。酒精也會影響神经递质系統中的許多物質,例如谷氨酸甘氨酸乙酰胆碱血清素[20][21]。酒精帶來的愉快感受是因為腦部中脑边缘通路多巴胺内源鴉片類藥物濃度上昇的效果[22][23]。不過酒精也有毒性,會讓身體不適,主要原因是因為酒精的代謝產物乙醛所造成[24]

酒類因為其精神方面的效果,自從約一萬年前就已被人類製造並且飲用[25]。和其他的娛樂用藥物不同,大多數的國家允許飲酒,飲酒也是合法的行為。不過有些對於酒類購買及使用的限制,例如最低允許飲酒年齡,以及法律上有關公眾場合喝酒英语Drinking in public酒後駕車的限制[26]。在許多文化中,酒類有其社交上及文化上的重要性,也有重要的社會層面意涵。像酒吧夜總會飲酒場所英语Drinking establishment,其中有許多酒精飲料的銷售及消費,另外像是派對节日及一些社交場合也常常會有酒類。飲酒也和許多的社會問題有關,例如車禍交通意外、意外受傷、性侵犯家庭暴力暴力犯罪英语violent crime[27]。目前在一些中東國家英语List of countries with alcohol prohibition仍有禁酒令禁止販售及飲用酒類。美國在1920年至1933年一度也實施過禁酒(美國禁酒令)。

相關條目[编辑]

參考資料[编辑]

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延伸閱讀[编辑]

  • The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism maintains a database of alcohol-related health effects. ETOH Archival Database (1972–2003) Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Science Database.

外部連結[编辑]