亚美尼亚人

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亞美尼亞人
Հայեր Hayer
Flag of Armenia.svg
總人口
7[1]10 百萬人[2]
Map of the Armenian Diaspora in the World.svg
分佈地區
 亞美尼亞     2,961,514[3][4]
 俄羅斯1,182,388[5]–2,900,000[6]
 美國1,000,366[7]–1,500,000[8]
 法國250,000[9]–750,000[10]
 格鲁吉亚
 * 阿布哈茲[note 1]
168,191[11]
41,864[12]
 阿塞拜疆
 * 阿尔察赫[note 2]

146,573[13]
 黎巴嫩150,000[14]
 伊朗120,000[15]
 德國90,000–110,000[16]
 叙利亚[note 3]100,000[17]
 烏克蘭100,000[18]
 巴西100,000[19][20]
 希臘80,000[21]
 阿根廷70,000[22]
 土耳其60,000[23]
 加拿大55,740[24]
 波蘭50,000[25]
 哈萨克斯坦25,000
[26]
 澳大利亚16,723[27]
 阿联酋8,000 –10,000[28]
 荷蘭5,689[n]–8,374[m] (2021)[29][30]
語言
亚美尼亚语
宗教信仰
P christianity.svg 基督宗教 亚美尼亚使徒教会 (主要)
亞美尼亞禮天主教會新教
註釋
^  n:  按法定國籍
^  m:  按國籍、歸化和後代背景

亞美尼亞人亚美尼亚语Հայեր, hayer[hɑˈjɛɾ]“哈亚斯坦”)是一个发源于高加索安纳托利亚东部的民族和族群,属欧罗巴人种阿尔卑斯人种地中海人种类型。使用亚美尼亚语,分成许多方言,属印欧语系亚美尼亚语族。

亞美尼亞人亦可指擁有亞美尼亞共和國國籍者,或亞美尼美境內的民族或族群。

宗教上属基督宗教亚美尼亚教会,也是历史上第一个将基督信仰列为国教的国家。大多數亞美尼亞信徒使用亞美尼亞式教堂,這是世界上最古老的民族教堂。由於兩位使徒猶達·達陡和巴托羅繆的努力,基督教在亞美尼亞傳播。如今亚美尼亚人700万人,除居住在亚美尼亚外,还分布在俄罗斯亞塞拜然格鲁吉亚美国伊朗法国德国烏克蘭黎巴嫩巴西叙利亚,其中俄罗斯是仅次于亚美尼亚的第二大亚美尼亚人聚居地,海外亚美尼亚人多于亚美尼亚共和国的亚美尼亚人。

亞美尼亞語有兩種相互可理解的書面形式。文字是由4世纪末5世纪初由学者聖梅斯羅布创制的亚美尼亚字母,经修改,一直沿用至今。

亚美尼亚种族大屠杀[编辑]

奥斯曼帝国政府首脑恩维尔帕夏塔拉特帕夏杰马尔帕夏等人的号召下,土耳其人於1915年至1917年间对其辖境内亚美尼亚人进行的种族屠杀。亚美尼亚人受害者数量达到150万之众。

土耳其政府至今拒绝承认这是一起土耳其官方发起的有预谋的种族屠杀行为,一些土耳其学者(如奥尔汉·帕穆克等)也持有相同观点。目前共有阿根廷比利時加拿大、法國、希臘意大利、黎巴嫩、荷蘭、俄羅斯、瑞典、德國等廿多个国家官方承认这是一场种族屠杀。欧洲议会也承认“亚美尼亚大屠杀”事件,称这宗屠杀为“违反人性的罪行”。联合国防止歧視和保護少數小組委員會也将事件定性为“种族灭绝”。[31]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ different sources:
    • Dennis J.D. Sandole. Peace and Security in the Postmodern World: The OSCE and Conflict Resolution. Routledge. 24 January 2007: 182. ISBN 9781134145713. The nearly 3 million Armenians in Armenia (and 3–4 million in the Armenian Diaspora worldwide) "perceive" the nearly 8 million Azerbaijanis in Azerbaijan as "Turks." 
    • McGoldrick, Monica; Giordano, Joe; Garcia-Preto, Nydia (编). Ethnicity and Family Therapy, Third Edition 3. Guilford Press. 18 August 2005: 439. ISBN 9781606237946. The impact of such a horror on a group who presently number approximately 6 million, worldwide, is incalculable. 
    • Sargsyan, Gevorg; Balabanyan, Ani; Hankinson, Denzel. From Crisis to Stability in the Armenian Power Sector: Lessons Learned from Armenia's Energy Reform Experience illustrated. World Bank Publications. 1 January 2006: 18. ISBN 9780821365908. The country's estimated 3–6 million diaspora represent a major source of foreign direct investment in the country. 
    • Arthur G. Sharp. The Everything Guide to the Middle East: Understand the people, the politics, and the culture of this conflicted region. Adams Media. 15 September 2011: 137. ISBN 9781440529122. Since the newly independent Republic of Armenia was declared in 1991, nearly 4 million of the world's 6 million Armenians have been living on the eastern edge of their Middle Eastern homeland. 
  2. ^ different sources:
    • Von Voss, Huberta. Portraits of Hope: Armenians in the Contemporary World. New York: Berghahn Books. 2007: xxv. ISBN 9781845452575. ...there are some 8 million Armenians in the world... 
    • Freedman, Jeri. The Armenian genocide. New York: Rosen Publishing Group. 2008: 52. ISBN 9781404218253. In contrast to its population of 3.2 million, approximately 8 million Armenians live in other countries of the world, including large communities in the America and Russia. 
    • Guntram H. Herb, David H. Kaplan. Nations and Nationalism: A Global Historical Overview: A Global Historical Overview. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. 2008: 1705. ISBN 9781851099085. A nation of some 8 million people, about 3 million of whom live in the newly independent post-Soviet state, Armenians are constantly battling not to lose their distinct culture, identity and the newly established statehood. 
    • Robert A. Saunders, Vlad Struko. Historical dictionary of the Russian Federation. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. 2010: 50. ISBN 9780810854758. 
    • Philander, S. George. Encyclopedia of global warming and climate change. Los Angeles: SAGE. 2008: 77. ISBN 9781412958783. An estimated 60 percent of the total 8 million Armenians worldwide live outside the country... 
    • Robert A. Saunders, Vlad Strukov. Historical dictionary of the Russian Federation. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. 2010: 51. ISBN 9780810874602. Worldwide, there are more than 8 million Armenians; 3.2 million reside in the Republic of Armenia. 
  3. ^ [1] 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期7 January 2019. հոկտեմբերի 12-21-ը Հայաստանի Հանրապետությունում անցկացված մարդահամարի արդյունքները (The results of the census conducted in October 2011 in the Republic of Armenia). pp 6-7. (亞美尼亞語)
  4. ^ Ministry of Culture of Armenia "The ethnic minorities in Armenia. Brief information" 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期10 October 2017.. As per the most recent census in 2011. "National minority" 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期16 February 2017..
  5. ^ National makeup of the population of the Russian Federation (Национальный состав населения Российской Федерации). Russian Federal State Statistics Service. [5 January 2013]. (原始内容存档于5 January 2016) (俄语). 
  6. ^ Robert A. Saunders, Vlad Struko. Historical dictionary of the Russian Federation. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. 2010: 50. ISBN 978-0-8108-5475-8. 
  7. ^ Total ancestry categories tallied for people with one or more ancestry categories reported 2011 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. United States Census Bureau. [22 December 2012]. 
  8. ^
  9. ^ Thon, Caroline. Armenians in Hamburg: an ethnographic exploration into the relationship between diaspora and success需要免费注册. Berlin: LIT Verlag Münster. 2012: 25. ISBN 978-3-643-90226-9. 
  10. ^ Taylor, Tony. Denial: history betrayed. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Pub. 2008: 4. ISBN 978-0-522-85482-4. 
  11. ^ National Statistics Office of Georgia (PDF). [24 May 2016]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于5 February 2017). 
  12. ^ В Абхазии объявили данные переписи населения. Delfi. 29 December 2011 [20 August 2013]. (原始内容存档于28 July 2019) (俄语).  (According to the 2011 census).
  13. ^ Republic of Artsakh. Population estimates of NKR as of 01.01.2013. [20 February 2014]. (原始内容存档于21 May 2020). 
  14. ^ Gibney, Matthew J. Immigration and asylum: from 1900 to the present. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. 2005: 13. ISBN 978-1-57607-796-2. 
  15. ^ Vardanyan, Tamara. Իրանահայ համայնք. ճամպրուկային տրամադրություններ [The Iranian-Armenian community]. Noravank Foundation. 21 June 2007 [5 January 2013]. (原始内容存档于19 May 2020) (亚美尼亚语). 
  16. ^ Sargsyan, Babken. Գերմանիաիի հայ համայնքը [Armenian community of Germany]. 8 December 2012 [10 January 2015]. (原始内容存档于3 March 2016) (亚美尼亚语). 
  17. ^ The Virtual Museum of Armenian Diaspora. Ministry of Diaspora of the Republic of Armenia. [2014-02-19]. (原始内容存档于19 February 2014). 
  18. ^ The distribution of the population by nationality and mother tongue, Kiev: State Statistics Committee of Ukraine, 2001 [5 January 2013] [永久失效連結]
  19. ^ Comunidade armênia prospera no Brasil, mas não abandona luta pela memória do massacre 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期10 June 2016.. By Breno Salvador. O Globo, 24 April 2015
  20. ^ Federal Senate of Brazil Recognizes Armenian Genocide. Armenian Weekly. 3 June 2015 [12 May 2016]. (原始内容存档于14 July 2015). 
  21. ^ Bedevyan, Astghik. Հունաստանի հայ համայնքը պատրաստվում է Հայաստանի նախագահի հետ հանդիպմանը [Armenian community of Greece preparing for the meeting with the Armenian president]. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Armenian Service. 18 January 2011 [10 January 2015]. (原始内容存档于3 March 2016) (亚美尼亚语). 
  22. ^ Ayvazyan 2003,第100頁.
  23. ^ Foreign Ministry: 89,000 minorities live in Turkey. Today's Zaman. 15 December 2008 [5 January 2013]. (原始内容存档于20 May 2011). 
  24. ^ Canada National Household Survey, Statistics Canada, 2011 [20 August 2013], (原始内容存档于24 December 2018) . Of those, 31,075 reported single and 24,675 mixed Armenian ancestry.
  25. ^ Narodowy Spis Powszechny 2011 (Polish Census of 2011). Główny Urząd Statystyczny (Polish Central Statistical Office). 2011 [31 October 2015]. (原始内容存档于17 October 2015). 
  26. ^ Численность населения Республики Казахстан по отдельным этносам на начало 2020 года. Комитет по статистике Министерства национальной экономики Республики Казахстан. [2020-04-27]. (原始内容存档于2017-11-08). 
  27. ^ The People of Australia – Statistics from the 2011 Census (PDF). Australian Government. 2014. ISBN 978-1-920996-23-9. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于14 July 2014). 
  28. ^ http://diaspora.gov.am/en/pages/41/uae.  缺少或|title=为空 (帮助)
  29. ^ CBS Statline. [2022-04-17]. (原始内容存档于2020-06-13). 
  30. ^ Bevolking; geslacht, leeftijd, generatie en migratieachtergrond, 1 januari. Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS). 22 July 2021 [16 January 2022]. (原始内容存档于2020-06-13) (荷兰语). 
  31. ^ Q&A: Armenian genocide dispute. BBC News. 2010-03-05 [2010-11-02]. (原始内容存档于2010-11-13). 

Notes

  1. ^ 阿布哈茲的地位存有爭議。它認為自己是一個獨立國家,但是只有極少數國家承認。格鲁吉亚政府及世界上絕大多數國家認為阿布哈茲是格魯吉亞的一部分。在格魯吉亞的行政區劃中,阿布哈茲是一個自治共和国
  2. ^ 阿尔扎赫共和国事实上是独立的,然而,它在国际上被视为阿塞拜疆的一部分。
  3. ^ 由于叙利亚内战,叙利亚亚美尼亚人的数量估计要低得多,因为这些是战前数字。