代 (地质学)

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地质年代学地层学单位
年代地层學
岩段(地层
地质年代學
時間間隔
说明
共有4个,大於5亿年
共有10个,數亿年
共有22個,數千萬至數億年
共有34個,數千万年
共有99個,数百万年
小于期,国际地层委员会(ICS)不使用
规范用法:恐龙生活在侏罗纪(时间),恐龙化石在侏罗系地层中找到。上、下修饰年代地层单位。早、晚修饰地质年代单位。(例:下白垩统对应早白垩世)

英语:Era)是地球地質年代時間單位之一,每個「」時間長達數億年不等。一個「宙」可以細分為數個「代」,例如显生宙分为古生代中生代新生代,代表宏观化石记录中的主要阶段。代與代之間以灾难性灭绝事件为界线,P-T界线古生代中生代的分界,K-T界线中生代新生代的分界。一些证据顯示在這些界線上,發生過灾难性的陨石撞击

地球在硬壳动物出现之前的四十亿年历史(過去非正式地統稱為前寒武紀),包括冥古宙太古宙元古宙。最近元古宙可細分为古元古代中元古代新元古代。太古宙可細分為始太古代古太古代中太古代新太古代冥古宙則尚未有正式的分代。

时间范围
新生代 0.66亿年前到现在
中生代 0.66-2.522亿年前
古生代 2.522-5.41亿年前
新元古代 5.41-10亿年前
中元古代 10-16亿年前
古元古代 16-25亿年前
新太古代 25-28亿年前
中太古代 28-32亿年前
古太古代 32-36亿年前
始太古代 36-40亿年前
冥古宙中没有正式的分代 地球形成40亿年前

地質年代參照表[编辑]


参见[编辑]

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ Paleontologists often refer to faunal stages rather than geologic (geological) periods. The stage nomenclature is quite complex. For an excellent time-ordered list of faunal stages, see The Paleobiology Database. [2006-03-19]. 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Dates are slightly uncertain with differences of a few percent between various sources being common. This is largely due to uncertainties in radiometric dating and the problem that deposits suitable for radiometric dating seldom occur exactly at the places in the geologic column where they would be most useful. The dates and errors quoted above are according to the International Commission on Stratigraphy 2004 time scale. Dates labeled with a * indicate boundaries where a Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point has been internationally agreed upon: see List of Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points for a complete list.
  3. ^ References to the "Post-Cambrian Supereon" are not universally accepted, and therefore must be considered unofficial.
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Historically, the Cenozoic has been divided up into the Quaternary and Tertiary sub-eras, as well as the Neogene and Paleogene periods. The 2009 version of the ICS time chart recognizes a slightly extended Quaternary as well as the Paleogene and a truncated Neogene, the Tertiary having been demoted to informal status.
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 For more information on this, see the following articles: Earth's atmosphere, carbon dioxide, Carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere, global warming, climate change, Image:Phanerozoic_Carbon_Dioxide.png, Image:65 Myr Climate Change.png, Image:Five Myr Climate Change.png, and Template:DF temperature
  6. ^ The start time for the Holocene epoch is here given as 11,700 years ago. For further discussion of the dating of this epoch, see Holocene.
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 In North America, the Carboniferous is subdivided into Mississippian and Pennsylvanian Periods.
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 上石炭紀地質在歐美及中國均以盛產煤炭著名,因此便以石炭紀為此時代地層的名稱,但在美國則以密士西必紀作為下石炭紀,另以賓夕法尼亞紀稱上部石炭紀。[1]
  9. ^ The Precambrian is also known as Cryptozoic.
  10. ^ 10.00 10.01 10.02 10.03 10.04 10.05 10.06 10.07 10.08 10.09 10.10 10.11 10.12 10.13 The Proterozoic, Archean and Hadean are often collectively referred to as the Precambrian Time or sometimes, also the Cryptozoic.
  11. ^ 11.00 11.01 11.02 11.03 11.04 11.05 11.06 11.07 11.08 11.09 11.10 11.11 Defined by absolute age (Global Standard Stratigraphic Age).
  12. ^ The age of the oldest measurable craton, or continental crust, is dated to 3600–3800 Ma
  13. ^ Though commonly used, the Hadean is not a formal eon and no lower bound for the Archean and Eoarchean have been agreed upon. The Hadean has also sometimes been called the Priscoan or the Azoic. Sometimes, the Hadean can be found to be subdivided according to the lunar geologic time scale. These eras include the Cryptic and Basin Groups (which are subdivisions of the Pre-Nectarian era), Nectarian, and Early Imbrian units.
  14. ^ 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 These unit names were taken from the Lunar geologic timescale and refer to geologic events that did not occur on Earth. Their use for Earth geology is unofficial.
  15. ^ Bowring, Samuel A.; Williams, Ian S. Priscoan (4.00–4.03 Ga) orthogneisses from northwestern Canada. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology. 1999, 134 (1): 3. Bibcode:1999CoMP..134....3B. doi:10.1007/s004100050465.  The oldest rock on Earth is the Acasta Gneiss, and it dates to 4.03 Ga, located in the Northwest Territories of Canada.
  16. ^ Geology.wisc.edu