伊曼紐·斯威登堡

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伊曼紐·斯威登堡、75歲,手拿Apocalypsis Revelata手稿(1766年).

伊曼紐‧斯威登堡关于这个音频文件 Emanuel Swedenborg,1688年1月29日-1772年3月29日),又譯作史威登堡瑞典科學家、神秘主義者、哲學家和神學家。

他的父親耶斯培·斯維登堡是著名的牧師。

1709年在烏普薩拉大學畢業後,往荷蘭法國德國旅遊,後來在英國倫敦學習力學、哲學,閱讀詩歌,還聽過牛頓的課。

1715年回國,並出版瑞典的第一種自然科學雜誌。之後二十年他都在自然科學和工程努力。國王查理十二世曾任命他為皇家礦務局顧問。

1734年他在德國莱比錫出版了3卷本的《哲學和邏輯學著作集》,這部著作的第一部分論述他的成熟的自然哲學。在這方面他深受法國大哲學家笛卡兒的影響。事實上,斯維登堡自然哲學的三個主要問題都受到笛卡兒的啟發:

  1. 物質由無限可分的微粒構成;
  2. 這些微粒處於永恆的旋轉運動之中;
  3. 地球行星系統是從太陽物質團中分離出來的。

第三個問題是他宇宙學的核心,深受英國作家T.伯內特《神聖的地球理論》一書的影響,是康德-拉普拉斯星雲說的先驅。在這以後,斯維登堡對生理學人體解剖學進行了認真的研究,特別著重研究了血液大腦。提出人的靈魂位於大腦,特別是位於大腦細胞的皮層。但是他的解剖學上的成果並未受到同時代科學家的注意。

晚年主要研究神學。他將巨大的精力用於解釋《聖經》,並敘述他在定中對神靈和天使世界的所見所聞。他認為上帝的存在是不可描述的,因為它本身既是實體又是形式。但是上帝的本質能從它的愛和智慧這兩種基本品質中得到理解。在與自然界相一致的神靈世界裏,上帝的本質是精神的太陽;它的溫暖是愛,它的光明是智慧。他在《天堂與地獄》一書中的第一章即指出,耶穌是天堂唯一的神,並且認同三位一體的概念(上帝、耶穌、聖靈,三個名詞,指的都是同一個)。認為創造是持續進行的、宇宙中每一事物都屬於一個系列,每個系列都有三個不同的度,這三個度由目的、原因和結果聯繫起來。每一結果都是下一較低系列的目的。創造的最後目的只能通過人來完成。他的想像力和宗教思想一直是巴爾扎克波德萊爾愛默生葉芝斯特林堡這些傑出作家靈感的源泉。

神秘學巨作《天堂與地獄》[编辑]

晚年的他,自稱用特殊的冥想方式,由“天使”帶引下來往於靈界,足足花了13年的時間拜訪了古今中外在天堂或地獄裡的人們,完成八大冊著作《天堂與地獄》。著作中詳細描繪人類在物質生命結束後,如何進入精神世界,永恆地以另一種方式生存。其中最大的不同觀點是,天堂與地獄,僅是靈魂出自自身的善、惡所致,並非由審判而來的結果。當所有良善的靈魂聚集起來的地方就是「天堂」,天堂內有不同宗教或無宗教的人.所有懷有惡意、想奴隸他人的靈魂當接近天堂時會感到極度不適,他們唯有選擇在別處聚集,就成了“地獄”,類似「物以類聚」的概念,這與傳統神學藉由審判來決定一個人是否上天堂或地獄的觀點不甚相同。

参考文献[编辑]

  • 靈界的真相
  • 天堂與地獄 史威登堡著 葉雷恩譯 白象文化事業有限公司
  • Ahlstrom, S.E. A Religious History of the American People (Yale 1972) Includes section on Swedenborg by this scholar.
  • Benz, Ernst, Emanuel Swedenborg: Visionary Savant in the Age of Reason (Swedenborg Foundation, 2002) ISBN 0-87785-195-6, a translation of the thorough German language study on life and work of Swedenborg, Emanuel Swedenborg: Naturforscher und Seher by the noted religious scholar Ernst Benz, published in Munich in 1948.
  • Bergquist, Lars, Swedenborg's Secret, (London, The Swedenborg Society, 2005) ISBN 0-85448-143-5, a translation of the Swedish language biography of Swedenborg, Swedenborgs Hemlighet, published in Stockholm in 1999. ISBN 91-27-06981-8
  • Block, M. B. The New Church in the New World. A study of Swedenborgianism in America (Holt 1932; Octagon reprint 1968) A detailed history of the ideational and social development of the organized churches based on Swedenborg's works.
  • Crompton, S. Emanuel Swedenborg (Chelsea House, 2005) Recent biography of Swedenborg.
  • Johnson, G., ed. Kant on Swedenborg. Dreams of a Spirit-Seer and Other Writings. Translation by Johnson, G., Magee, G.E. (Swedenborg Foundation 2002) New translation and extensive set of supplementary texts.
  • Lamm, Martin, Swedenborg: En studie (1987; first ed. 1915). A popular biography that is still read and quoted. It is also available in English: Emanuel Swedenborg: The Development of His Thought, Martin Lamm (Swedenborg Studies, No. 9, 2001), ISBN 0-87785-194-8
  • Lagercrantz, Olof, Dikten om livet på den andra sidan (Wahlström & Widstrand 1996), ISBN 91-46-16932-6. In Swedish.
  • Leon, James, Overcoming Objections to Swedenborg's Writings Through the Development of Scientific Dualism An examination of Swedenborg's discoveries. The author is a professor of psychology (1998; published in New Philosophy, 2001)
  • Moody, R. A. Life after Life (Bantam 1975) Reports correlation of near-death experience with Swedenborg's reports of life after death.
  • Price, R. Johnny Appleseed. Man and Myth (Indiana 1954) Definitive study of this legendary man. Includes details of his interest in Swedenborg and the organizational New Church
  • Robsahm, Carl, Hallengren, Anders (translation and comments), Anteckningar om Swedenborg (Föreningen Swedenborgs Minne: Stockholm 1989), ISBN 91-87856-00-X. Hallengren writes that the first complete publication of the Robsam manuscript was in R. L. Tafel's Documents, Vol. I, 1875 (see section "#Further reading")
  • Sigstedt, C.,The Swedenborg Epic. The Life and Works of Emanuel Swedenborg (New York: Bookman Associates, 1952). The whole book is available online at Swedenborg Digital Library.
  • Toksvig, Signe, Emanuel Swedenborg. Scientist and Mystic., Yale University Press, (1948), and Swedenborg Foundation, (1983), ISBN 0-87785-171-9

延伸閱讀[编辑]

Newer material:

  • The Arms of Morpheus—Essays on Swedenborg and Mysticism, ed. Stephen McNeilly (London: Swedenborg Society, 2007), ISBN 978-0-85448-150-7.
  • Between Method and Madness—Essays on Swedenborg and Literature, ed. Stephen McNeilly (London: Swedenborg Society, 2005), ISBN 978-0-85448-145-3.
  • In Search of the Absolute—Essays on Swedenborg and Literature, ed. Stephen McNeilly (London: Swedenborg Society, 2005), ISBN 978-0-85448-141-5.
  • On the True Philosopher and the True Philosophy—Essays on Swedenborg, ed. Stephen McNeilly (London: Swedenborg Society, 2005), ISBN 978-0-85448-134-7.
  • Swedenborg and His Influence, ed. Erland J. Brock, (Bryn Athyn, Pennsylvania: The Academy of the New Church, 1988), ISBN 0-910557-23-3.
  • Jonathan S. Rose, ed. Emanuel Swedenborg: Essays for the New Century Edition on His Life, Work, and Impact (West Chester, Pennsylvania: Swedenborg Foundation, 2002), ISBN 0-87785-473-4. 580 pages. Multiple scholars contributed to this collection of information on Swedenborg, his manuscripts, and his cultural influence. Republished in 2004 under new title, Scribe of Heaven: Swedenborg's Life, Work, and Impact ISBN 0-87785-474-2.
  • Wilson van Dusen, The Presence of Other Worlds, Swedenborg Foundation, Inc., New York, Harper & Row, 1974. ISBN 0-87785-166-2
  • "The Madness Hypothesis,"[失效連結] a special issue of The New Philosophy (1998;101: whole number), a journal produced by the Swedenborg Scientific Association, reviews the question of Swedenborg's sanity in scholarly detail, making the case that he was in fact quite sane.
  • Donald L. Rose, ed., Afterlife: A Guided Tour of Heaven and Its Wonders. Swedenborg Foundation, 2006. (abridged version of Heaven and Hell)
  • D. T. Suzuki, translated by Andrew Bernstein, Afterword by David Loy, Swedenborg: Buddha of the North. Swedenborg Foundation, 1996. (Brilliantly shows relevance of Swedenborg's ideas to Buddhist thought.)
  • Nemitz, K. The Man and His Work: A brief biography. [1]
  • Larsen, T, Larsen, Lawrence, JF, Woofenden WR. Emanuel Swedenborg. A Continuing Vision. Swedenborg Foundation, 1988
  • Sig Synnestvedt, ed., The Essential Swedenborg: Basic Religious Teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. Swedenborg Foundation, 1970.

Older material of importance, some of it not in print:

  • James John Garth Wilkinson, Emanuel Swedenborg: A Biography, London: William Newbery, 1849 [December 2, 2014] 
  • The most extensive work is: RL Tafel, Documents concerning the Life and Character of Swedenborg, collected, translated and annotated (3 vols., Swedenborg Society, 1875—1877);
  • J. Hyde, A Bibliography of the Works of Emanuel Swedenborg (Swedenborg Society).
  • Kant's Träume eines Geistersehers (1766; the most recent edition in English is from 1975, ISBN 3-7873-0311-1 );
  • J. G. Herder's "Emanuel Swedenborg," in his Adrastea (Werke zur Phil. und Gesch., xii. 110–125).
  • Transactions of the International Swedenborg Congress (London, 1910), summarized in The New Church Magazine (August 1910).
  • Swedenborg and Esoteric Islam (Swedenborg Studies, No 4) by Henry Corbin, Leonard Fox
  • Ralph Waldo Emerson, "Swedenborg; or, the Mystic", in Emerson: Essays and Lectures (New York, New York: The Library of America, 1983), ISBN 978-0-940450-15-8.
  • William White, Emmanuel Swedenborg, His Life and Writings, 2nd Ed., Rev. (xx, 767 p.; London, Simpkin, Marshall, and Co., 1868) – This is the second of White’s two biographies of Swedenborg, the first one published in 1856 (White, W. Swedenborg: his life and writings Bath : I. Pitman, Phonetic Institution, 1856) and this second one in 1867. White worked for the Swedenborg Society in London and wrote an affirmative biography of Swedenborg. However, he was fired for publishing spiritist books and selling them at the Society’s store, as well as otherwise interfering with the Society’s function. White’s response was the 1867 biography, in which he, in Tafel’s words, “turn[ed] a complete somersault in his convictions,” and wrote a highly derogatory biography of Swedenborg and his teachings.(The Swedenborg Epic footnote # 769) (R. Tafel, Documents Concerning the Life and Character of Emanuel Swedenborg, Vol. 3, p. 1284. London. Swedenborg Society 1890)

外部链接[编辑]