伊本·图费勒

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伊本·图费勒
个人资料
出生1105年
逝世1185年(79-80歲)
宗教信仰伊斯兰教
年代伊斯蘭黃金時代
地区安达卢斯
信条伊本·西那学派
专业领域伊斯兰哲学英语Early Islamic philosophy文學, 伊斯兰教义学伊斯兰医学
著名思想著成首部哲学小说英语philosophical novel,首部有無人島野孩子和成长情节的长篇小说,发明自主學習白板概念
著作哈义·本·叶格赞的故事
职业学者
高級職位

伊本·图费勒(阿拉伯语:ابن طفيلIbn Tufail拉丁語Abubacer Aben Tofail;约1105年-1185年),又译伊本·图斐利,全名阿布贝克尔·穆罕默德·本·阿卜杜勒-马利克·本·穆罕默德·本·图费勒·盖西·安达卢西أبو بكر محمد بن عبد الملك بن محمد بن طفيل القيسي الأندلسيAbu Bakr Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik ibn Muhammad ibn Tufail al-Qaisi al-Andalusi),12世纪阿拉伯穆斯林博学家[1],出生于安达卢斯,涉猎文学哲学神学医学天文学,同时也是北非穆瓦希德王朝的宫廷大臣。

在文学领域,著有哲学小说名作《哈义·本·叶格赞的故事》。作为医学家,他支持解剖验尸,该立场在其小说著作中也有体现[2]

生平[编辑]

伊本·图费勒出生在安达卢斯格拉纳达地区的瓜迪斯,家族是阿拉伯部落民[3]。他早年师从通才伊本·巴哲[4],曾担任休达丹吉尔格拉纳达统治者的顾问[5],后来成为穆瓦希德王朝哈里发阿布·雅各布·优素福维齐尔医师[4]。他在1169年举荐另一位著名学者伊本·鲁世德接任其职位[6]。1182年隐退,1185年逝世于穆瓦希德王朝都城马拉喀什[7]

伊本·图费勒的天文学研究和托勒密天文学相悖,在学史上推翻托勒密天文学的过程中发挥了重要作用[8],是天文学史“安达卢西亚反叛”的一部分。其著作促使后世学者最终摒弃托勒密学说[8]

伊本·图费勒的著作影响了后世诸多伊斯兰学者,包括努尔丁·比特鲁吉英语Nur ad-Din al-Bitruji、阿布·阿卜杜拉·穆罕默德·阿巴尔、阿卜杜勒·瓦希德·马拉库希英语Abd al-Wahid al-Marrakushi艾哈迈德·穆罕默德·马加里英语Ahmed Mohammed al-Maqqari伊本·哈蒂卜英语Ibn al-Khatib[9]

《哈义·本·叶格赞的故事》[编辑]

伊本·图费勒的哲学小说著作《哈义·本·叶格赞的故事》(拉丁文名为《自修的哲学家》,Philosophus Autodidactus)颇为著名,讲述了一个无人岛上的野孩子瞪羚抚养下成长并自主学习的故事。他在没有接触其他人类的情况下,借由理智问答从而系统性地发现了人间真理。他接触到一个逃难者,从而了解了哲学和宗教,得出结论:宗教的外化掩饰,如偶像崇拜、物质依赖等,是普罗大众必需的,这是为了让他们有着体面的生活。但偶像和物质是阻碍求真的混淆品,发觉了这一点的人就应该抛弃它们[10]。小说的主人公名为哈义·本·叶格赞(Hayy ibn Yaqdhan),名哈义意为活着,父名叶格赞意为醒来。这些名字都来自伊本·西那的著作[10]

伊本·图费勒写作此小说也是为了呼应安萨里的著作《哲学家的矛盾英语The Incoherence of the Philosophers》。伊本·纳菲斯英语Ibn al-Nafis在13世纪著成小说《自修的神学家英语Theologus Autodidactus》呼应此作。《自修的哲学家》是阿拉伯文学历史上的名著,在欧洲文学也有着非比寻常的影响力[11],在17世纪和18世纪成为西欧畅销书[12][13]。此作显著地影响了伊斯兰哲学和近代西方哲学的发展[14],被视为激发科学革命启蒙时代的先驱之作,其中的思想在托马斯·霍布斯约翰·洛克艾萨克·牛顿伊曼努尔·康德的著作中都有体现[15]

该书的拉丁文版《自修的哲学家》最早出现在1671年;首部英文译本出版于1708年。该作也激发了丹尼尔·笛福的灵感,促使他创作出《鲁滨逊漂流记》,同样讲述了一个无人岛上的幸存者的故事[16][17][18]。小说也促使了洛克之《人類理解論》中白板概念的诞生[19]。书中哈义的唯物主义观念和卡尔·马克思历史唯物主义也有一定相似之处[20]。该书还预示了后世提出的莫利紐茲問題[21][22]戈特弗里德·莱布尼茨[11]約翰·沃利斯克里斯蒂安·惠更斯[23]貴格會[24]伏尔泰[25]的思想也都受到此书影响。

参见[编辑]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ Avempace, Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007.
  2. ^ Jon Mcginnis, Classical Arabic Philosophy: An Anthology of Sources, p. 284, Hackett Publishing Company英语Hackett Publishing Company, ISBN 0-87220-871-0.
  3. ^ Carra de Vaux, B., “Ibn Ṭufayl”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Consulted online on 16 April 2020 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_3394>
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1  Chisholm, Hugh (编). Ibn Ṭufail. 大英百科全書 14 (11th ed.). 劍橋大學出版社: 223. 1911. 
  5. ^ Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Tufayl. Encyclopedia of World Biography. 2004, 8: 96 –通过Gale eBooks. 
  6. ^ Avner Ben-Zaken, "Taming the Mystic", in Reading Hayy Ibn-Yaqzan: A Cross-Cultural History of Autodidacticism (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2011). ISBN 978-0801897399.
  7. ^ Ibn Tufayl, Abü Bakr Muhammad. Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 2008, 13: 488–489 –通过Encyclopedia.com. 
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 Božović, Mihajlo. The Process of Civilization in Ibn Tufayl's Hayy Ibn Yaqzan. Kom (Beograd). 2017, 2: 77–90 –通过ResearchGate. 
  9. ^ Matar, Nabil. Ibn Tufayl (ca. 1105–85). The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought. 2013: 241–242 –通过Gale eBooks. 
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 Corbin, Henry. Ibn Ṭufayl (d. 580 AH/1185 CE). Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2006, 4: 550–551 –通过Gale eBooks. 
  11. ^ 11.0 11.1 Martin Wainwright, Desert island scripts, The Guardian, 22 March 2003.
  12. ^ Avner Ben-Zaken, Reading Hayy Ibn-Yaqzan: A Cross-Cultural History of Autodidacticism (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2011). ISBN 978-0801897399.
  13. ^ G. A. Russell (1994), The 'Arabick' Interest of the Natural Philosophers in Seventeenth-Century England, p. 228, Brill Publishers英语Brill Publishers, ISBN 978-90-04-09888-6.
  14. ^ G. J. Toomer英语G. J. Toomer (1996), Eastern Wisedome and Learning: The Study of Arabic in Seventeenth-Century England, p. 218, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-820291-1.
  15. ^ Samar Attar英语Samar Attar, The Vital Roots of European Enlightenment: Ibn Tufayl's Influence on Modern Western Thought, Lexington Books, ISBN 0-7391-1989-3.
  16. ^ Nawal Muhammad Hassan (1980), Hayy bin Yaqzan and Robinson Crusoe: A study of an early Arabic impact on English literature, Al-Rashid House for Publication.
  17. ^ Cyril Glasse (2001), New Encyclopedia of Islam英语Encyclopedia of Islam, p. 202, Rowman Altamira, ISBN 0-7591-0190-6.
  18. ^ Amber Haque (2004), "Psychology from Islamic Perspective: Contributions of Early Muslim Scholars and Challenges to Contemporary Muslim Psychologists", Journal of Religion and Health 43 (4): 357–377 [369].
  19. ^ G. A. Russell (1994), The 'Arabick' Interest of the Natural Philosophers in Seventeenth-Century England, pp. 224–239, Brill Publishers英语Brill Publishers, ISBN 978-90-04-09888-6.
  20. ^ Dominique Urvoy, "The Rationality of Everyday Life: The Andalusian Tradition? (Aropos of Hayy's First Experiences)", in Lawrence I. Conrad (1996), The World of Ibn Tufayl: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Ḥayy Ibn Yaqẓān, pp. 38–46, Brill Publishers英语Brill Publishers, ISBN 90-04-09300-1.
  21. ^ Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik Ibn Tufayl英语Ibn Tufayl and Léon Gauthier (1981), Risalat Hayy ibn Yaqzan, p. 5, Editions de la Méditerranée:[1]

    "If you want a comparison that will make you clearly grasp the difference between the perception, such as it is understood by that sect [the Sufis] and the perception as others understand it, imagine a person born blind, endowed however with a happy natural temperament, with a lively and firm intelligence, a sure memory, a straight sprite, who grew up from the time he was an infant in a city where he never stopped learning, by means of the senses he did dispose of, to know the inhabitants individually, the numerous species of beings, living as well as non-living, there, the streets and sidestreets, the houses, the steps, in such a manner as to be able to cross the city without a guide, and to recognize immediately those he met; the colors alone would not be known to him except by the names they bore, and by certain definitions that designated them. Suppose that he had arrived at this point and suddenly, his eyes were opened, he recovered his view, and he crosses the entire city, making a tour of it. He would find no object different from the idea he had made of it; he would encounter nothing he didn’t recognize, he would find the colors conformable to the descriptions of them that had been given to him; and in this there would only be two new important things for him, one the consequence of the other: a clarity, a greater brightness, and a great voluptuousness."

  22. ^ Diana Lobel (2006), A Sufi-Jewish Dialogue: Philosophy and Mysticism in Baḥya Ibn Paqūda's Duties of the Heart, p. 24, University of Pennsylvania Press, ISBN 0-8122-3953-9.
  23. ^ G. A. Russell (1994), The 'Arabick' Interest of the Natural Philosophers in Seventeenth-Century England, p. 227, Brill Publishers英语Brill Publishers, ISBN 978-90-04-09888-6.
  24. ^ G. A. Russell (1994), The 'Arabick' Interest of the Natural Philosophers in Seventeenth-Century England, p. 247, Brill Publishers英语Brill Publishers, ISBN 978-90-04-09888-6.
  25. ^ Tor Eigeland, The Ripening Years 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2008-03-01., Saudi Aramco World英语Saudi Aramco World, September–October 1976.

书目[编辑]

  • P. Brönnle, The Awakening of the Soul (London, 1905)
  • Samar Attar, The Vital Roots of European Enlightenment: Ibn Tufayl's Influence on Modern Western Thought (Lanham, 2010)
  • Ben-Zaken, Avner, "Taming the Mystic", in Reading Hayy Ibn-Yaqzan: A Cross-Cultural History of Autodidacticism (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2011). ISBN 978-0801897399.
  • Mahmud Baroud, The Shipwrecked Sailor in Arabic and Western Literature: Ibn Tufayl and His Influence on European (London, 2012)

外部链接[编辑]