俄羅斯合併克里米亞

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2014年年初,俄羅斯聯邦合併了克里米亞半島。克里米亞半岛于1954年由俄罗斯赠与烏克蘭。現在克里米亞半島屬於俄羅斯的克里米亞共和國塞瓦斯托波尔。這一事件也是2014年烏克蘭革命之後烏克蘭南部及東部動亂的一部分[1]。2014年2月22日至23日,俄羅斯總統普京與安全部門的負責人召開會議,並表示「我們必須讓克里米亞回歸俄羅斯」[2]。2月23日,塞瓦斯托波尔發生親俄示威遊行。2月27日,得到掩飾的俄羅斯軍隊接管了克里米亞議會[3][4],並佔領克里米亞戰略要地,建立親俄政府。在3月16日的公投之後,克里米亞宣布獨立[5]。3月18日,俄羅斯聲稱擁有克里米亞主權。烏克蘭和眾多世界其他國家譴責俄羅斯[6][7],認為這一行為違反國際法和俄羅斯簽署的保障烏克蘭領土完整的協議。聯合國也拒絕承認俄羅斯合併克里米亞[8][9][9]。2016年,聯合國大會重新確認不承認俄羅斯兼併烏克蘭領土,並譴責俄羅斯佔領克里米亞和塞瓦斯托波尔[10][11]。但俄羅斯反對使用「吞併」來形容這次事件[12]。普京表示這次公投符合前途自決[13][14]。2015年7月,俄羅斯總理梅德韋傑夫表示克里米亞已經完全融入俄羅斯[15]

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ Meeting of the Valdai International Discussion Club. kremlin.ru. 24 October 2014. I will be frank; we used our Armed Forces to block Ukrainian units stationed in Crimea, but not to force anyone to take part in the elections 
  2. ^ Putin describes secret operation to seize Crimea. Yahoo News. 8 March 2015 [24 March 2015]. 
  3. ^ Simon Shuster. Putin's Man in Crimea Is Ukraine's Worst Nightmare. Time. 10 March 2014 [8 March 2015]. Before dawn on Feb. 27, at least two dozen heavily armed men stormed the Crimean parliament building and the nearby headquarters of the regional government, bringing with them a cache of assault rifles and rocket propelled grenades. A few hours later, Aksyonov walked into the parliament and, after a brief round of talks with the gunmen, began to gather a quorum of the chamber's lawmakers. 
  4. ^ Alissa de Carbonnel. How the separatists delivered Crimea to Moscow. Reuters. 13 March 2014 [8 March 2015]. Only a week after gunmen planted the Russian flag on the local parliament, Aksyonov and his allies held another vote and declared parliament was appealing to Putin to annex Crimea 
  5. ^ Про дострокове припинення повноважень Верховної Ради Автономної Республіки Крим [On the dissolution of the Verkhovna Rada of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea]. Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. 15 March 2014 (乌克兰语). 
  6. ^ Oleksandr Turchynov. Декларація "Про боротьбу за звільнення України" [Declaration "On the struggle for the liberation of Ukraine"]. Parliament of Ukraine. 20 March 2014 [24 April 2014] (乌克兰语). 
  7. ^ Fred Dews. NATO Secretary-General: Russia's Annexation of Crimea Is Illegal and Illegitimate. Brookings. 19 March 2014 [8 March 2015]. 
  8. ^ UN General Assembly adopts resolution affirming Ukraine's territorial integrity. China Central Television. 28 March 2014 [8 March 2015]. (原始内容存档于2018-03-04). 
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 United Nations A/RES/68/262 General Assembly (PDF). United Nations. 1 April 2014 [24 April 2014]. 
  10. ^ Situation of human rights in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol (Ukraine)[永久失效連結]
  11. ^ General Assembly Adopts 50 Third Committee Resolutions, as Diverging Views on Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity Animate Voting
  12. ^ Лавров назвал оскорбительными заявления Запада об аннексии Крыма [Lavrov called Western declarations about the annexation of Crimea as being offensive]. vz.ru. 21 March 2014 [8 March 2015] (俄语). 
  13. ^ Mike Collett-White; Ronald Popeski. Crimeans vote over 90 percent to quit Ukraine for Russia. Reuters. 16 March 2014 [8 March 2015]. 
  14. ^ Boris N. Mamlyuk. The Ukraine Crisis, Cold War II, and International Law. The German Law Journal. July 6, 2015. SSRN 2627417. 
  15. ^ Jess McHugh. Putin Eliminates Ministry of Crimea, Region Fully Integrated into Russia, Russian Leaders Say. International Business Times. 15 July 2015 [10 January 2016].