假種皮

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荔枝可食的部分為假種皮

假種皮(aril, arillus),亦作臨時種皮種衣,是一種附著於種子表面,將種子外側覆蓋起來的構造。相較於種皮珠被發育而成,假種皮常由珠柄(種子與子房相連的構造,又稱胎座)發育而成,也可能來自胚珠的其他部分(如珠孔),後者有時亦被稱為擬假種皮(arillode, false aril)[1][2]。假種皮通常如果肉般顏色鮮豔且肉質可食[3],可吸引動物取食以協助傳播種子[4],由假種皮發育的果實屬於假果龍眼荔枝榴蓮[5][6]阿開木被子植物,以及紅豆杉核果杉英语Prumnopitys紐西蘭雞毛松裸子植物的果實皆屬之。

實例[编辑]

歐洲的東北紅豆杉的種子是假種皮的典型例子,其種子紅色膨大的構造即為假種皮,假種皮初時為種子基部的綠色構造,隨著種子的發育漸轉為棕色或紅色,並包覆整個種子,左圖成熟的紅色種子兩旁是未成熟的種子。紐西蘭雞毛松紐西蘭原生植物,其假種皮發育成的果實稱為koroi,曾為毛利人的食物來源[7][8]

參見[编辑]

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ Beentje, H.; Williamson, J., The Kew Plant Glossary: an Illustrated Dictionary of Plant Terms, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew英语Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: Kew Publishing, 2010 
  2. ^ Robert Bentley. A Manual of Botany: Including the Structure, Classification, Properties, Uses, and Functions of Plants. J. & A. Churchill. 1882: 329. 
  3. ^ Eduard Strasburger, Heinrich Schenck, Ludwig Jost, George Karsten. A text-book of botany. Macmillan. 1912: 517. 
  4. ^ Marshall, C. Fruit and Seed Production. 1992-04-30. ISBN 9780521373500. 
  5. ^ Brown, Michael J. Durio – A Bibliographic Review (PDF). International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI). 1997: 35 [2011-06-12]. ISBN 978-92-9043-318-7. 
  6. ^ 郭華仁. 種子學. 國立臺灣大學出版中心. 2015: 13. ISBN 9863501131. 
  7. ^ Dacrycarpus dacrydioides (kahikatea) description. conifers.org. 2011 [10 September 2011]. 'The small fruit (koroi) are superabundant and highly nutritious. The birds ate them and flocked for miles to do so. 
  8. ^ Kahikatea, Dacrycarpus. web.auckland.ac.nz. 2011 [10 September 2011]. (原始内容存档于12 January 2012). The juicy, swollen, red stalk which holds the seed is known as koroi. 
  9. ^ Dahlgren, R. And R. F. Thorne. The order Myrtales: circumscription, variation, and relationships. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 1984, 71: 633–699. doi:10.2307/2399158. 
  10. ^ Jules Janick, Robert E. Paull. The Encyclopedia of Fruit and Nuts. CABI. 2008: 138. ISBN 0851996388. 
  11. ^ Teri Dunn Chace, Robert Llewellyn. Seeing Seeds: A Journey into the World of Seedheads, Pods, and Fruit. Timber Press. 2015: 25. ISBN 160469713X.