催眠

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳到导航 跳到搜索

催眠(英語:Hypnosis)是一種人類的身心狀態,涉及注意力集中(選擇性注意/選擇性注意力不集中假設,英語:selective attention/selective inattention hypothesis,縮寫作 SASI)[1],外圍意識(英語:peripheral awareness)降低,以及對心理暗示(英語:Suggestion)的反應能力增強。[2]

有解釋催眠和相關現象的多種理論。改變狀態(英語:Altered state)理論將催眠視為一種改變的心智或恍惚狀態(英語:Trance),以不同於普通意識狀態的意識水平為標誌。[3][4] 相比之下,非狀態(英語:non-state)理論將催眠視為一種安慰劑效應[5][6],重新定義與治療者的互動[7]或一種富有想像力的角色扮演形式。[8][9][10]

在催眠期間,據說一個人的注意力與專注力被提升[11],並對心理暗示的反應增加。[12] 催眠通常以催眠誘導(英語:Hypnotic induction)開始,包括一系列初步的指示和心理暗示。將催眠用於治療目的被稱為“催眠療法”,而將其用作觀眾的一種娛樂形式被稱為“舞台催眠”(英語:Stage hypnosis),這是一種心靈魔術(英語:Mentalism)。

用於疼痛管理的催眠“可能會減少大多數人的急性和慢性疼痛”。[13] 以催眠為基礎的治療大腸激躁症更年期的療法得到了(科學)證據的支持。[14][15][16][17] 使用催眠治療其他問題產生了不同的結果,例如戒菸[18][19][20] 使用催眠作為一種治療形式來恢復和整合幼年創傷在科學主流中存在爭議。研究表明,對個人進行催眠可能有助於形成錯誤記憶[21],且催眠“並不能幫助人們更準確地回憶事件”。[22]

參見[编辑]

注釋與引用來源[编辑]

  1. ^ Hall, Harriet. Hypnosis revisited. Skeptical Inquirer. 2021, 45 (2): 17–19. 
  2. ^ In 2015, the American Psychological Association Division 30 defined hypnosis as a "state of consciousness involving focused attention and reduced peripheral awareness characterized by an enhanced capacity for response to suggestion". For critical commentary on this definition, see: Lynn SJ, Green JP, Kirsch I, Capafons A, Lilienfeld SO, Laurence JR, Montgomery GH. Grounding Hypnosis in Science: The "New" APA Division 30 Definition of Hypnosis as a Step Backward. The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis. April 2015, 57 (4): 390–401. PMID 25928778. S2CID 10797114. doi:10.1080/00029157.2015.1011472. 
  3. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 2004: "a special psychological state with certain physiological attributes, resembling sleep only superficially and marked by a functioning of the individual at a level of awareness other than the ordinary conscious state".
  4. ^ Erika Fromm; Ronald E. Shor. Hypnosis: Developments in Research and New Perspectives. Rutgers. 2009 [27 September 2014]. ISBN 978-0-202-36262-5. (原始内容存档于2021-12-22). 
  5. ^ Kirsch I. Clinical hypnosis as a nondeceptive placebo: empirically derived techniques. The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis. October 1994, 37 (2): 95–106. PMID 7992808. doi:10.1080/00029157.1994.10403122. 
  6. ^ Kirsch, I., "Clinical Hypnosis as a Nondeceptive Placebo", pp. 211–25 in Kirsch, I., Capafons, A., Cardeña-Buelna, E., Amigó, S. (eds.), Clinical Hypnosis and Self-Regulation: Cognitive-Behavioral Perspectives, American Psychological Association, (Washington), 1999 ISBN 1-55798-535-9
  7. ^ Theodore X. Barber. Hypnosis: A Scientific Approach. J. Aronson, 1995. 1969. ISBN 978-1-56821-740-6. 
  8. ^ Lynn S, Fassler O, Knox J. Hypnosis and the altered state debate: something more or nothing more?. Contemporary Hypnosis. 2005, 22: 39–45. doi:10.1002/ch.21. 
  9. ^ Coe WC, Buckner LG, Howard ML, Kobayashi K. Hypnosis as role enactment: focus on a role specific skill. The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis. July 1972, 15 (1): 41–45. PMID 4679790. doi:10.1080/00029157.1972.10402209. 
  10. ^ Steven J. Lynn; Judith W. Rhue. Theories of hypnosis: current models and perspectives. Guilford Press. 1991 [30 October 2011]. ISBN 978-0-89862-343-7. (原始内容存档于2013-10-13). 
  11. ^ = Segi, Sherril. Hypnosis for pain management, anxiety and behavioral disorders. The Clinical Advisor: For Nurse Practitioners. 2012, 15 (3): 80. ISSN 1524-7317. 
  12. ^ Lyda, Alex. "Hypnosis Gaining Ground in Medicine." Columbia News页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆). Columbia.edu. Retrieved on 1 October 2011.
  13. ^ Hypnosis for the Relief and Control of Pain. www.apa.org. [2021-12-22]. (原始内容存档于2021-07-25). 
  14. ^ Peters, S. L.; Yao, C. K.; Philpott, H.; Yelland, G. W.; Muir, J. G.; Gibson, P. R. Randomised clinical trial: the efficacy of gut-directed hypnotherapy is similar to that of the low FODMAP diet for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 2016, 44 (5): 447–459 [2021-12-22]. ISSN 1365-2036. PMID 27397586. S2CID 42525698. doi:10.1111/apt.13706. (原始内容存档于2021-12-22) (英语). 
  15. ^ Lacy, Brian E.; Pimentel, Mark; Brenner, Darren M.; Chey, William D.; Keefer, Laurie A.; Long, Millie D.; Moshiree, Baha. ACG Clinical Guideline: Management of Irritable Bowel Syndrome. American Journal of Gastroenterology. January 2021, 116 (1): 17–44. ISSN 0002-9270. PMID 33315591. doi:10.14309/ajg.0000000000001036可免费查阅 (美国英语). 
  16. ^ Elkins, Gary R.; Fisher, William I.; Johnson, Aimee K.; Carpenter, Janet S.; Keith, Timothy Z. Clinical Hypnosis in the Treatment of Post-Menopausal Hot Flashes: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Menopause. March 2013, 20 (3): 291–298. ISSN 1072-3714. PMC 3556367可免费查阅. PMID 23435026. doi:10.1097/GME.0b013e31826ce3ed. 
  17. ^ Nonhormonal management of menopause-associated vasomotor symptoms: 2015 position statement of The North American Menopause Society. Menopause. November 2015, 22 (11): 1155–1172; quiz 1173–1174 [2021-12-22]. ISSN 1530-0374. PMID 26382310. S2CID 14841660. doi:10.1097/GME.0000000000000546. (原始内容存档于2021-03-22). 
  18. ^ Hasan, Faysal M.; Zagarins, Sofija E.; Pischke, Karen M.; Saiyed, Shamila; Bettencourt, Ann Marie; Beal, Laura; Macys, Diane; Aurora, Sanjay; McCleary, Nancy. Hypnotherapy is more effective than nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2014, 22 (1): 1–8 [2021-12-22]. PMID 24559809. doi:10.1016/j.ctim.2013.12.012. (原始内容存档于2021-12-22) (英语). 
  19. ^ Carmody, T. P.; Duncan, C.; Simon, J. A.; Solkowitz, S.; Huggins, J.; Lee, S.; Delucchi, K. Hypnosis for smoking cessation: a randomized trial. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2008, 10 (5): 811–818 [2021-12-22]. PMID 18569754. doi:10.1080/14622200802023833. (原始内容存档于2022-03-03) (英语). 
  20. ^ Barnes, Joanne; McRobbie, Hayden; Dong, Christine Y; Walker, Natalie; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie. Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group , 编. Hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2019-06-14, 2019 (6): CD001008. PMC 6568235可免费查阅. PMID 31198991. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001008.pub3 (英语). 
  21. ^ Lynn, Steven Jay; Krackow, Elisa; Loftus, Elizabeth F.; Locke, Timothy G.; Lilienfeld, Scott O. Constructing the past: problematic memory recovery techniques in psychotherapy. Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Lynn, Steven Jay; Lohr, Jeffrey M. (编). Science and pseudoscience in clinical psychology 2nd. New York: Guilford Press. 2014: 245–275. ISBN 9781462517510. OCLC 890851087. 
  22. ^ Hall, Celia. Hypnosis does not help accurate memory recall, says study. Telegraph. 26 August 2001 [11 March 2019]. (原始内容存档于2019-03-31). 

其他参考[编辑]