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克利福德·格尔茨[1]Clifford Geertz,1926年8月23日-2006年10月30日),美國文化人类学家,象徵人類學代表人物。


Antioch College哈佛大学,于1956年取得博士学位。之后历任加州大学柏克萊分校芝加哥大学普林斯顿高等研究院





在《文化的詮釋》中的首篇文章:《深刻寫描》中,他開宗明義的指出他整本書的目的,以及他心目中的人類學研究應是如何。他的目的簡單的說是要更加精確的定義「文化」這個概念。就他而言他採取的是一符號學的取向,認為文化是人自己織出並居於其中的「意義之網」(這是引用德國社會學家Max Weber語)。而人類學的工作便是要找出這些「意義之網」究竟是什麼。至於人類學家是怎麼做到這一點,他引用英國哲學家吉爾伯特‧賴爾(Gilbert Ryle)著名的短語:「深刻寫描」(thick description)。想像一個男孩正為了向他的同伴暗示些什麼,而不停的擠眉弄眼;另一個男孩走進來,看到這一幕,便開始模仿起來,甚至還帶有點玩笑意味。我們怎麼知道這兩個動作事實上是不一樣的動作? 對他而言,如果我們是緊緊遵守行為主義的教條,換言之僅觀察行為本身,我們可能沒有辦法區辨這兩個動作哪裡不同。畢竟,他們都不過是眨眼的動作罷了。但關鍵就在這裡,我們之所以能夠知道這兩個動作不一樣,就在於我們掌握了這兩個男孩-行動者-的意圖(intention;或另一個Geertz喜歡的短語:what they are up to)。其中一個正運用了「擠眉弄眼」這一有特定意義結構支撐的行動在傳遞某些想法、意圖;而另一個僅僅是單純的模仿。



  • 1957 Ritual and Social Change: A Javanese Example. American Anthropologist 59(1):32-54.
  • 1959 Form and Variation in Balinese Village Structure. American Anthropologist 61:991-1012.
  • 1959 The Javanese Village. In Local, Ethnic, and National Loyalties in Village Indonesia. Ed. G. William Skinner. pp. 34–41. New Haven: Southeast Asian Program, Yale University.
  • 1960 Religion of Java. Glencoe: Free Press.
  • 1961 The Rotating Credit Association: A "Middle Rung" in Development. Economic Development and Cultural Change 10:241-263.
  • 1962 Studies in Peasant Life: Community and Society. In Biennial Review of Anthropology 1961. Ed. Bernard J. Siegal. pp. 1–41. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • 1962 The Growth of Culture and the Evolution of Mind. In Theories of the Mind. Ed. J. Scher. pp. 713–740. New York: Free Press.
  • 1963 Agricultural Involution: The Process of Agricultural Change in Indonesia. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • 1963 Peddlers and Princes: Social Change and Economic Modernization in Two Indonesian Towns. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • 1963 (editor) Old Societies and New States. New York: Free Press.
  • 1963 The Integrative Revolution: Primordial Sentiments and Civil Politics in the New States. In Old Societies and New States. Ed. Clifford Geertz. pp. 105–157. Glencoe: Free Press.
  • 1964 Ideology as a Cultural System. In Ideology and Discontent. Ed. David Apter. pp. 47–76. New York: Free Press.
  • 1965 The Social History of an Indonesian Town. Cambridge: MIT Press.
  • 1965 Modernization in a Muslim Society: The Indonesian Case, 201-211, in Robert O. Tilman (ed), Man, State, and Society in Contemporary South East Asia. London: Pall Mall.
  • 1966 Person, Time, and Conduct in Bali: An Essay in Cultural Analysis. Southeast Asia Program, Cultural Report Series. New Haven: Yale University.
  • 1966 Religion as a Cultural System. In Anthropological Approaches to the Study of Religion. Ed. Michael Banton. pp. 1–46. ASA Monographs, 3. London: Tavistock Publications.
  • 1966 The Impact of the Concept of Culture on the Concept of Man. In New Views of the Nature of Man. Ed. J. Platt. pp. 93–118. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • 1967 Politics Past, Politics Preset: Some Notes on the Contribution of Anthropology to the Study of the New States. European Journal of Sociology 8(1):1-14.
  • 1967 The Cerebral Savage: On the Work of Claude Levi-Strauss. Encounter 48(4):25-32.
  • 1967 Tihingan: A Balinese Village. In Villages in Indonesia. Ed. R. N. Koentjaraningrat. pp. 210–243. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.
  • 1967 Under the Mosquito Net. New York Review of Books, September 14.
  • 1968 Islam Observed: Religious Development in Morocco and Indonesia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 136 pp.
  • 1968 Thinking as a Moral Act: Dimensions of Anthropological Fieldwork in the New States. Antioch Review 28(2):139-158.
  • 1972 Religious Change and Social Order in Soeharto's Indonesia. Asia 27:62-84.
  • 1972 The Wet and the Dry: Traditional Irrigation in Bali and Morocco. Human Ecology 1:34-39.
  • 1972 Deep Play: Notes on the Balinese Cockfight. Daedalus 101(1 Winter).
  • 1973 The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. New York: Basic.
  • 1973 Thick Description: Toward an Interpretive Theory of Culture. In The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. Clifford Geertz. pp 3–30. New York: Basic Books.
  • 1976 From the Native's Point of View. In Meaning in Anthropology. Eds. Keith H. Basso and Henry A. Selby. pp. 221–237. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
  • 1977 Found in Translation: On the Social History of the Moral Imagination. Georgia Review 31(4 Winter):788-810.
  • 1977 Curing, Sorcery, and Magic in a Javanese Town. In Culture, Disease, and Healing: Studies in Medical Anthropology. Ed. David Landy. pp. 146–153. New York: Macmillan Publishing.
  • 1979 [with Hildred Geertz and Lawrence Rosen] Meaning and Order in Moroccan Society: Three Essays in Cultural Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. See his own contribution on "Suq: The Bazaar Economy in Sefrou" (pp. 123–225).
  • 1980 Negara: The Theatre State in Nineteenth-Century Bali. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • 1983 Local Knowledge: Further Essays in Interpretive Anthropology. New York: Basic Books.
  • 1983 Centers, Kings, and Charisma: Reflections on the Symbolics of Power. In Local Knowledge: Further Essays in Interpretive Anthropology. Clifford Geertz. pp. 121–146. New York: Basic Books.
  • 1983 "From the Native's Point of View": On the Nature of Anthropological Knowledge. In Local Knowledge: Further Essays in Interpretive Anthropology. Clifford Geertz. pp. 55–70. New York: Basic Books.
  • 1983 Notions of Primitive Thought: Dialogue with Clifford Geertz. In States of Mind. ed & comp Jonathan Miller. pp. 192–210. New York: Pantheon.
  • 1984 Anti-Anti-Relativism. 1983 Distinguished Lecture. American Anthropologist 82:263-278.
  • 1984 Culture and Social Change: The Indonesian Case. Man 19:511-532.
  • 1986 The Uses of Diversity. In Tanner Lectures on Human Values, Vol. 7. Ed. Sterling M. McMurrin. pp. 251–275. Cambridge and Salt Lake City: Cambridge University Press and University of Utah Press.
  • 1988 Works and Lives: The Anthropologist as Author. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

The four studies included in the book are:

  • "The World in a Text: How to Read Tristes Tropiques" (pp. 25–48).
  • "Slide Show: Evans-Pritchard's African Transparencies" (pp. 49–72).
  • "I-Witnessing: Malinowski's Children" (pp. 73–101).
  • "Us/not-Us: Benedict's Travels" (pp. 102–128).
  • 1989 Margaret Mead, 1901-1978. Biographical Memoirs 58:329-341. National Academy of Sciences.
  • 1990 History and Anthropology. New Literary History 21(2 Winter):321-335.
  • 1991 The Year of Living Culturally. New Republic, October 21, 30-36.
  • 1992 "Local Knowledge" and Its Limits: Some Obiter Dicta. Yale Journal of Criticism 5(2):129-135.
  • 1993 "Ethnic Conflict": Three Alternative Terms. Common Knowledge 2(3 Winter):54-65.
  • 1994 Life on the Edge. [Review of Tsing, In the Realm of the Diamond Queen]. New York Review of Books 41(7 April ):3-4.
  • 1995 After the Fact: Two Countries, Four Decades, One Anthropologist. [The Jerusalem-Harvard Lectures]. Cambridge and London: Harvard University Press.
  • 1995 Culture War. [Review essay on Sahlins, How "Natives" Think and Obeyesekere, The Apotheosis of Captain Cook]. New York Review of Books 42(19 November 30):4-6.
  • 2000 Available Light: Anthropological Reflections on Philosophical Topics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • 2010 Life Among the Anthros and Other Essays edited by Fred Inglis (Princeton University Press; 272 pages)


  1. ^ 世界人名翻译大辞典,中国对外翻译出版公司,1993年,第599、1052页