兒童性虐待

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儿童性虐待,又称儿童性骚扰,是某些成人或年纪较长的青少年儿童实施性刺激的一种行为。[1][2]儿童性虐待的形式包括:与儿童发生性行为(无论是否是对方同意还是强行要求,或者是通过其他方式);猥亵(恶意接触儿童阴部、女孩乳头等);儿童性诱拐;或是利用儿童制造儿童色情影片等。[1][3]

儿童性虐待可发生在多种场合,其中包括家庭、学校或工厂(在使用童工较多的地区)。童婚是儿童性虐待最常见的一种形式。联合国儿童基金会指出,“童婚可能是发生在女孩身上儿童性虐待的最常见的形式。”[4]儿童性虐待的影響包括抑郁症创伤后应激障碍焦虑复杂创伤后应激障碍[5]且有进一步在成年期受害的倾向。家庭成员造成的性虐待主要形式是乱伦,除了对孩子身体上的伤害,并且可能会导致更严重和长期的心理创伤,特别是在近亲乱伦的情况下。[6]

儿童性虐待的全球发生率,估计已经在女性中为7.9%、男性中为19.7%。[7]大多数性虐待罪犯与受害者熟悉:约30%是孩子的亲戚,最经常的是兄弟、父亲、叔叔或堂兄弟;60%左右是其他熟人,如家庭保姆或者邻居。大约10%的儿童性虐待案件的罪犯是陌生人。[8]且大多数儿童性虐待由男人所为。[8][9][10]

恋童癖这个词一般是套用在那些性侵儿童的人,[11]但是针对儿童的性犯罪者不一定都是恋童癖,除非他们对青春期前的孩子有强烈的性欲。[12]根据法律,“儿童性虐待”经常被用作为描述成人与未成年人发生性行为或是与未成年人发生“两情相悦”的行为而触犯刑事或民事法律的总称。[13][14]美国心理协会指出,“不能认同成人与儿童之间发生性行为”,并谴责任何一个这样做的成年人:“一个成年人与未成年人发生性关系是违反道德甚至犯罪的行为,亦是永远不能被社会认同的行为。”[15]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Child Sexual Abuse. Medline Plus. U.S. National Library of Medicine,. 2008-04-02. 
  2. ^ Guidelines for psychological evaluations in child protection matters. Committee on Professional Practice and Standards, APA Board of Professional Affairs. The American Psychologist. August 1999, 54 (8): 586–593. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.54.8.586. PMID 10453704. Abuse, sexual (child): generally defined as contacts between a child and an adult or other person significantly older or in a position of power or control over the child, where the child is being used for sexual stimulation of the adult or other person. 
  3. ^ Martin J, Anderson J, Romans S, Mullen P, O'Shea M. Asking about child sexual abuse: methodological implications of a two stage survey. Child Abuse & Neglect. 1993, 17 (3): 383–92. doi:10.1016/0145-2134(93)90061-9. PMID 8330225. 
  4. ^ UNICEF
  5. ^ Roth, Susan; Newman, Elana; Pelcovitz, David; Van Der Kolk, Bessel; Mandel, Francine S. Complex PTSD in victims exposed to sexual and physical abuse: Results from the DSM-IV field trial for posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress. 1997, 10 (4): 539–55. doi:10.1002/jts.2490100403. PMID 9391940. 
  6. ^ Courtois, Christine A. Healing the incest wound: adult survivors in therapy. New York: Norton. 1988: 208. ISBN 0-393-31356-5. 
  7. ^ Pereda, N.; Guilera, G.; Forns, M. & Gómez-Benito, J. The prevalence of child sexual abuse in community and student samples: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review. 2009, 29 (4): 328–338. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2009.02.007. 
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 引用错误:没有为名为Whealin的参考文献提供内容
  9. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为Finkelhor1994的参考文献提供内容
  10. ^ Dube SR, Anda RF, Whitfield CL, 等. Long-term consequences of childhood sexual abuse by gender of victim. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. June 2005, 28 (5): 430–438. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2005.01.015. PMID 15894146. 
  11. ^ Ames, M. Ashley; Houston, David A. Legal, social, and biological definitions of pedophilia. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 1990, 19 (4): 333–42. doi:10.1007/BF01541928. PMID 2205170. 
  12. ^ Blaney, Paul H.; Millon, Theodore. Oxford Textbook of Psychopathology (Oxford Series in Clinical Psychology) 2nd. Oxford University Press, USA. 2009: 528. ISBN 0-19-537421-5. Some cases of child molestation, especially those involving incest, are committed in the absence of any identifiable deviant erotic age preference. 
  13. ^ What is sexual abuse?. NSPCC. [12 January 2016]. 
  14. ^ The Sexual Exploitation of Children, Chart 1: Definitions of Terms Associated With the Sexual Exploitation (SEC) and Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC) (p. 4), University of Pennsylvania Center for Youth Policy Studies, U.S. National Institute of Justice, August 2001.
  15. ^ APA Letter to the Honorable Rep. DeLay (R-Tx) (新闻稿). American Psychological Association. June 9, 1999 [2009-03-08]. (原始内容存档于October 10, 1999). 

延伸阅读[编辑]

  • Lew, Mike. 不再受害者:男人从儿童性虐待康复的经典指南 2nd. Perennial Currents. 2004. ISBN 0-06-053026-X. 
  • Cynthia Crosson-Tower. Understanding child abuse and neglect. Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon. 2008. ISBN 0-205-50326-8. 
  • Asa Don Brown. Posttraumatic stress disorder in childhood. New Orleans: Family and Marriage Counseling, FMC. 2009. 
  • Lascaratos, J; Ascaratos J; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E. Child Sexual abuse: Historical cases in the Byzantine Empire (324–1453 A.D.). Child Abuse& Neglect. 2000, 24 (8): 1085–1090. doi:10.1016/S0145-2134(00)00156-3. 
  • Durkin, KF; Clifton DB. Propagandizing pederasty: A thematic analysis of the on-line exculpatory accounts of unrepentant pedophiles. Deviant Behavior. 1999, 20 (2): 103–127. doi:10.1080/016396299266524. 
  • Zimring, Franklin E. An American Travesty: Legal Responses to Adolescent Sexual Offending. University of Chicago Press. 2009. ISBN 978-0-226-98358-5. 

外部链接[编辑]